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Basic networking

Discussion in 'Networking & Security' started by HUSKIE, Feb 1, 2011.

  1. HUSKIE

    HUSKIE

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    Basic networking

    TOOLS IN NETWORKING

    1. UTP CABLE
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    2. RJ-45
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    3. CRIMPING TOOL
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    4. LAN TESTER
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    5. LAN CARD
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    6. HUB, SWITCH HUB
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    7. ROUTER
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    TYPES OF UTP CABLE PINOUT AND COLOR CODING

    Straight Cable

    You usually use straight cable to connect different type of devices. This type of cable will be used most of the time and can be used to:

    1) Connect a computer to a switch/hub's normal port.
    2) Connect a computer to a cable/DSL modem's LAN port.
    3) Connect a router's WAN port to a cable/DSL modem's LAN port.
    4) Connect a router's LAN port to a switch/hub's uplink port. (normally used for expanding network)
    5) Connect 2 switches/hubs with one of the switch/hub using an uplink port and the other one using normal port.

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    Crossover Cable

    Sometimes you will use crossover cable, it's usually used to connect same type of devices. A crossover cable can be used to:

    1) Connect 2 computers directly.
    2) Connect a router's LAN port to a switch/hub's normal port. (normally used for expanding network)
    3) Connect 2 switches/hubs by using normal port in both switches/hubs.

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    HOW TO CREATE ETHERNET CABLE

    WATCH THIS:
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QWGwaXMUEKs

    THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HUBS, SWITCHES AND ROUTERS

    HUB

    In a hub, a frame is passed along or "broadcast" to every one of its ports. It doesn't matter that the frame is only destined for one port. The hub has no way of distinguishing which port a frame should be sent to. Passing it along to every port ensures that it will reach its intended destination. This places a lot of traffic on the network and can lead to poor network response times.
    Additionally, a 10/100Mbps hub must share its bandwidth with each and every one of its ports. So when only one PC is broadcasting, it will have access to the maximum available bandwidth. If, however, multiple PCs are broadcasting, then that bandwidth will need to be divided among all of those systems, which will degrade performance.

    SWITCH HUB

    A switch, however, keeps a record of the MAC addresses of all the devices connected to it. With this information, a switch can identify which system is sitting on which port. So when a frame is received, it knows exactly which port to send it to, without significantly increasing network response times. And, unlike a hub, a 10/100Mbps switch will allocate a full 10/100Mbps to each of its ports. So regardless of the number of PCs transmitting, users will always have access to the maximum amount of bandwidth. It's for these reasons why a switch is considered to be a much better choice then a hub.

    ROUTER

    Routers are completely different devices. Where a hub or switch is concerned with transmitting frames, a router's job, as its name implies, is to route packets to other networks until that packet ultimately reaches its destination. One of the key features of a packet is that it not only contains data, but the destination address of where it's going.
    A router is typically connected to at least two networks, commonly two Local Area Networks (LANs) or Wide Area Networks (WAN) or a LAN and its ISP's network . for example, your PC or workgroup and EarthLink. Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect. Using headers and forwarding tables, routers determine the best path for forwarding the packets. Router use protocols such as ICMP to communicate with each other and configure the best route between any two hosts.

    Routers are also the only one of these devices that will allow you to share a single IP address among multiple network clients.

    So, in short, a hub glues together an Ethernet network segment, a switch can connect multiple Ethernet segments more efficiently and a router can do those functions plus route TCP/IP packets between multiple LANs and/or WANs; and much more of course.

    SIMPLE DIAGRAM IN NETWORKING WITH INTERNET
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  2. brandonwh64

    brandonwh64 Addicted to Bacon and StarCrunches!!!

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    This is a great small networking guide for a small business or home user! STICKY
     
    HUSKIE says thanks.
    Crunching for Team TPU
  3. scaminatrix

    scaminatrix

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    +1, Sticky vote from me too.
    I like these "back to basic" guides, nice and easy to understand.
     
    HUSKIE says thanks.
  4. streetfighter 2

    streetfighter 2 New Member

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    Good guide. I hope you won't mind some constructive criticism . . .

    There are lots of terms needed for disambiguation. For instance "LAN CARD" is also "ETHERNET CARD", "NETWORK ADAPTER", "LAN ADAPTER", "NIC", "NETWORK INTERFACE CARD", etc.

    Perhaps a couple links and/or concise definition of the terms, "MAC address" and "IP address". Maybe even a link explaining the transition to IPv6, though I guess it doesn't matter much for LANs.

    I don't know if it's different in the UK, but in the USA a switch is a switch, not a "switch hub".
     
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  5. Jizzler

    Jizzler

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    Forgot the beer, but otherwise nice ;)

    [​IMG]
     
  6. Kreij

    Kreij Senior Monkey Moderator Staff Member

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    Nice job.
    In addition to SF2s suggestions, you may want to also explain the acronyms (like UTP = Unshielded Twisted Pair, LAN = Local Area Network, WAN = Wide Area Netork, etc.)

    What's the last picture? I see no lines connecting anything to show physical routes.
    Is that intended? Or is it just not showing up on my monitor?
     
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  7. remixedcat

    remixedcat

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    what about the fluke networks cable tester?
     
  8. Jakeman97

    Jakeman97 New Member

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    GREAT job......I just built my first very tiny network. Knew absolutely nothing about it when I started, and what I know now would fit on the head of a pin....LOL. Your post is a definite +1. Thanks for the effort and hard work with the pics and all..
     
    HUSKIE says thanks.
  9. remixedcat

    remixedcat

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    The diagram with the black BG is slick. I thanked the post for that. and the chinese cable tester.
     
  10. HUSKIE

    HUSKIE

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    WIRELESS NETWORKING

    The term wireless networking refers to technology that enables two or more computers to communicate using standard network protocols, but without network cabling. Strictly speaking, any technology that does this could be called wireless networking. The current buzzword however generally refers to wireless LANs. This technology, fuelled by the emergence of cross-vendor industry standards such as IEEE 802.11, has produced a number of affordable wireless solutions that are growing in popularity with business and schools as well as sophisticated applications where network wiring is impossible, such as in warehousing or point-of-sale handheld equipment.

    TWO KINDS OF WIRELESS NETWORKS

    1. An ad-hoc, or peer-to-peer wireless network consists of a number of computers each equipped with a wireless networking interface card. Each computer can communicate directly with all of the other wireless enabled computers. They can share files and printers this way, but may not be able to access wired LAN resources, unless one of the computers acts as a bridge to the wired LAN using special software. (This is called "bridging")

    AD-HOC figure

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    2. A wireless network can also use an access point, or base station. In this type of network the access point acts like a hub, providing connectivity for the wireless computers. It can connect (or "bridge") the wireless LAN to a wired LAN, allowing wireless computer access to LAN resources, such as file servers or existing Internet Connectivity.


    TWO TYPES OF ACCESS POINTS

    1. Dedicated hardware access points (HAP) such as Lucent's WaveLAN, Apple's Airport Base Station or WebGear's AviatorPRO. Hardware access points offer comprehensive support of most wireless features, but check your requirements carefully.

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    2. Software Access Points which run on a computer equipped with a wireless network interface card as used in an ad-hoc or peer-to-peer wireless network. The Vicomsoft InterGate suites are software routers that can be used as a basic Software Access Point, and include features not commonly found in hardware solutions, such as Direct PPPoE support and extensive configuration flexibility, but may not offer the full range of wireless features defined in the 802.11 standard.

    [​IMG]

    BR,
     
  11. remixedcat

    remixedcat

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    do more slick diagrams with smooth black BG's and awesome vista aero effects those would be kickass!
     

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