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Black Holes

CAPSLOCKSTUCK

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@rtwjunkie
an artists impression.................. perhaps a "piss artists" impression ?

Maybe we are viewing a potential birth rather than a death, especially when you consider what it is aiming for in picture 5 and the outcome in picture 6 looks positively cosmosgasmic
:D
 
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The yellow-hued object at the center of the frame is an elliptical galaxy Hercules A (aka 3C 348). It lies ~ 2 billion ly away. It is one of the brightest sources of radio emission outside our Galaxy. Red-pink jets of material (high-energy plasma) can be seen billowing outwards from the galaxy.



Hercules A's black hole (2.5 billion times the mass of the Sun) heats material and accelerates it to nearly the speed of light. These highly focused jets lose energy as they travel, eventually slowing down and spreading out to form the cloud-like lobes seen here.

The multiple bright rings and knots seen within these lobes suggest that the black hole has sent out numerous successive bursts of material over the course of its history. The jets stretch for ~ 1.5 million ly ~15 times the size of the Milky Way.
 
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Galaxy Pictor A, located ~ 500 million ly from us, contains a supermassive black hole at its center. A huge amount of gravitational energy is released as material swirls towards the event horizon. This energy produces an enormous jet of particles traveling at nearly the speed of light into intergalactic space.



The jet [to the right] in Pictor A is the one that is closest to us. It displays continuous X-ray emission over a distance of 300000 ly. By comparison, the entire Milky Way is ~ 100000 ly in diameter. Because of its relative proximity and Chandra's ability to make detailed X-ray images, scientists can look at detailed features in the jet and test ideas of how the X-ray emission is produced.

In addition to the prominent jet seen pointing to the right in the image, researchers report evidence for another jet pointing in the opposite direction, known as a "counterjet". While tentative evidence for this counterjet had been previously reported, these new Chandra data confirm its existence. The relative faintness of the counterjet compared to the jet is likely due to the motion of the counterjet away from the line of sight to the Earth.

The detailed properties of the jet and counterjet observed with Chandra show that their X-ray emission likely comes from electrons spiraling around magnetic field lines, a process called synchrotron emission. In this case, the electrons must be continuously re-accelerated as they move out along the jet. How this occurs is not well understood.

The researchers ruled out a different mechanism for producing the jet's X-ray emission. In that scenario, electrons flying away from the black hole in the jet at near the speed of light move through the sea of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) left over from the hot early phase of the Universe after the Big Bang. When a fast-moving electron collides with one of these CMB photons, it can boost the photon's energy up into the X-ray band.

The X-ray brightness of the jet depends on the power in the beam of electrons and the intensity of the background radiation. The relative brightness of the X-rays coming from the jet and counterjet in Pictor A do not match what is expected in this process involving the CMB, and effectively eliminate it as the source of the X-ray production in the jet.
 

qubit

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@Drone A 300K ly yet? Frigging Mindblowing!
 
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No way this thread is on the page 2. Discoveries won't let it happen! Yeah yeah, new black hole!




A jet from a very distant black hole, called B3 0727+409, has been found using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The light from this jet was emitted just 2.7 billion light years after the Big Bang when the Universe was only 1/5 its current age. The length of the jet is at least 300 000 ly.

As the electrons in the jet fly from the black hole at close to the speed of light, they move through the sea of CMBR and collide with microwave photons. This boosts the energy of the photons up into the X-ray band to be detected by Chandra. If this is the case, it implies that the electrons in the B3 0727+409 jet must keep moving at nearly the speed of light for hundreds of thousands of light years.
 

CAPSLOCKSTUCK

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Scientists believe these mysterious rings could exist in a universe with five or more dimensions.
Now, a new study of five-dimensional black holes has provided an insight into how these objects could evolve with gravity so intense the laws of physics break down.








The research claims that, should this type of black hole form, it would lead to the appearance of something known as a 'naked singularity' - and could ultimately break Einstein's theory of relativity.
Stephen Hawking once said that 'nature abhors a naked singularity', because it would throw out everything we think we know about the universe.
No one has ever found evidence of a naked singularity, but the latest research suggests that they could exist.
The researchers, from the University of Cambridge and Queen Mary University of London, have simulated a black hole shaped like a very thin ring using computer models.
The ring gives rise to a series of 'bulges' connected by strings that become thinner over time.
These strings eventually become so thin that they pinch off into a series of miniature black holes, similar to how a thin stream of water from a tap breaks up into droplets.
Ring-shaped black holes were 'discovered' by theoretical physicists in 2002, but this is the first time that their dynamics have been successfully simulated using supercomputers.
This would cause the equations behind general relativity to break down.

 
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Astronomers have accurately detected a structure in the innermost region of the accretion disk of the lensed quasar Q 2237+0305 through gravitational microlensing at a distance of > 5 billion ly from us.

A quasar emits its energy due to a disk of hot matter orbiting around a supermassive black hole at high speed, and whose mass is the equivalent to a billion stars. Said disk's size is comparable to that of our Solar System.

In particular, the researchers have managed to measure the inner edge of the accretion disk orbiting around the quasar Q2237+0305 (aka "Einstein Cross") through the study of the changes in the brightness of four different images of said quasar.
 
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Magnificent lecture by Prof. Kip Thorne.

(starts around 6 mins)

Warped side of the Universe, Colliding Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, Naked Singularities, Wormholes ....

Absolutely brilliant :love:

 
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A black hole called V404 Cygni emitted dazzling red flashes lasting just fractions of a second, as it blasted out material that it could not swallow.



The inset shows one still image of a red flash observed from the black hole V404 Cygni located 7800 ly from Earth. The flashes are incredibly short and last < 1 sec, with some of them being even faster than 1/40th of a second. The flashes are equivalent to a luminosity of ~ 1000 times the Sun's power. The background image shows a region of the sky in the Cygnus constellation, with the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant on the bottom left.

Rutherford Fellow in the University of Southampton's Astronomy Group, comments: “The very high speed tells us that the region where this red light is being emitted must be very compact. Piecing together clues about the colour, speed, and the power of these flashes, we conclude that this light is being emitted from the base of the black hole jet. The origin of these jets is still unknown, although strong magnetic fields are suspected to play a role.

"Furthermore, these red flashes were found to be strongest at the peak of the black hole's feeding frenzy. We speculate that when the black hole was being rapidly force-fed by its companion orbiting star, it reacted violently by spewing out some of the material as a fast-moving jet. The duration of these flashing episodes could be related to the switching on and off of the jet, seen for the first time in detail
."
 
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So.... how many Suns have they weighed again? o_O
I take it they approximate the size of the black hole as they can't actually see them, then assume density, and calculate weight, so basically they are guessing.
 
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One of the things that intrigues me is how they spin, what causes the rotational forces, do they all spin the same direction and what happens in a binary situation where two black holes come in close proximity, do the rotational forces cancel each other out?
 
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Gravitational forces (warped space-time) / conservation of momentum make all astronomical bodies rotate on their axis. For example Pluto and Charon:






When it's a tight binary black hole system black holes will merge because they lose gravitational energy. When they're extremely close their event horizons' surface will change from sphere to lobe. Black holes like all stars possess magnetic fields and that fact plays its role too:

 
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Weighing a supermassive black hole by CAASTRO

Galaxies have a supermassive black hole at their heart. In some galaxies that black hole is actively consuming nearby gas. In such Active Galactic Nuclei the gas heats up enormously as it's accelerated in, and the light it emits ionizes the surrounding region. The bigger the black hole the hotter the gas, and the larger the ionized bubble. So if we can measure the size of the bubble (by measuring how long it takes for light to traverse it before reflecting of the surrounding gas and dust clouds) we can measure the mass of the black hole!


Astronomers Perplexed By Rare Alignment Of Supermassive Black Holes by RAS

 
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This visualization shows gravitational waves emitted by two black holes of nearly equal mass as they spiral together and merge. Orange ripples represent distortions of space-time caused by the rapidly orbiting masses. These distortions spread out and weaken, ultimately becoming gravitational waves (purple).

Hawking @ Harvard
At packed Sanders Theatre, theoretical physicist and cosmologist tackles the contradictory qualities of black holes


It's said that fact is sometimes stranger than fiction, and nowhere is that more true than in the case of black holes. Black holes are stranger than anything dreamed up by science fiction writers, but they are clearly matters of science fact.

Apart from mass, angular momentum, and electrical charge the black hole preserves no other details of the object that collapsed. For example, the final black hole state is independent of whether the body that collapsed was composed of matter or antimatter, or whether it was spherical or highly irregular.

This created a paradox about the nature of black holes. One theory suggested that black holes with identical qualities could be formed from an infinite number of different types of stars; another suggested that the number could be finite. This is a problem of information.

If the information about the bodies that form black holes is not lost, then black holes contain a lot of information that is hidden from the outside world. If the amount of hidden information inside a black hole depends on the size of the hole, one would expect, on general principles, that a black hole would have a temperature and would glow like a piece of hot metal. But that was impossible because, as everyone knew, nothing could get out of a black hole - or so it was thought.

In early 1974, Hawking began to challenge that axiom when he discovered particles emitting from a black hole at a steady rate.

That outflow, later dubbed Hawking radiation, was among the key ideas that revolutionized science's understanding of black holes by suggesting that at least some energy could be emitted by the mysterious phenomena.

What happens to all the particles that fell into the black hole? They can't just emerge when the black hole disappears. The particles that come out of a black hole seem to be completely random and bear no relation to what fell in. It appears that the information about what fell in is lost, apart from the total amount of mass and the amount of rotation.

If that information is truly lost, Hawking said, that strikes at the heart of our understanding of science.

For more than 200 years, we have believed in the science of determinism. If information were lost in black holes, we wouldn't be able to predict the future because the black hole could emit any collection of particles.

It might seem that it wouldn't matter very much if we couldn't predict what comes out of black holes — there aren't any black holes near us. But it's a matter of principle. If determinism — the predictability of the universe — breaks down in black holes, it could break down in other situations. Even worse, if determinism breaks down, we can't be sure of our past history either. The history books and our memories could just be illusions. It is the past that tells us who we are. Without it, we lose our identity.

To understand whether that information is in fact lost, or whether it can be recovered, Hawking and colleagues are currently working to understand “supertranslations” to explain the mechanism by which information is returned from a black hole and encoded on the 'event horizon'.

Following the lecture, Hawking answered three questions from audience members, including one about his recently announced Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to send probes to the nearest star system, Alpha Centauri.


“The Solar System contains nowhere that is as favorable to human life as the Earth,” Hawking said. “The moon is small and has no atmosphere. Mars is also smaller than the Earth. It has a thin atmosphere, but it is not enough to breathe or protect us from cosmic radiation, so astronauts will have to live underground. To find somewhere like the Earth, we have to boldly go to the stars.”
 
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I'm not sure how flying a kite in space is going to help get there.
 
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Nothing really new but not too bad either



The Information Paradox: Do Black Holes "Bleach" Cosmic History?

Pretty informative video with Christophe Galfard


Extremely interesting and breathtaking brand new video about quasars and accretion disks by American Museum of Natural History
 
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