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Higgs boson, the size of the Universe and ... dilaton?

Sep 1, 2010
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The boffins haven't found that darn boson but they say that it can have a cousine!


An expanding Universe
The Universe, which today extends over billions of light-years, was incredibly minuscule at its birth. To simulataneously explain this dichotomy of scale and the fact that matter is seemingly distributed in a homogeneous fashion throughout the Universe, physicists have had to resort to a theoretical trick: they added an inflationary phase to the Big Bang, an initial phenomenal expansion in which the Universe grew by a factor of 10^26 in a very short time. Physicists have a hard time, though, accounting for this rapid growth.
In its first moments, the Universe was unimaginably dense. Under these conditions, why wouldn’t gravity have slowed down its initial expansion? Here’s where the Higgs boson enters the game – it can explain the speed and magnitude of the expansion, says Mikhail Shaposhnikov and his team from EPFL’s Laboratory of Particle Physics and Cosmology. In this infant Universe, the Higgs, in a condensate phase, would have behaved in a very special way – and in so doing changed the laws of physics. The force of gravity would have been reduced. In this way, physicists can explain how the Universe expanded at such an incredible rate.

What’s in store for the Universe?
The theory may clear up the first moments of the Universe, but what about the Universe as it is today? “We have determined that when the Higgs condensate disappeared to make way for the particles that exist today, the equations permitted the existence of a new, massless particle, the dilaton,” explains EPFL physicist Daniel Zenhäusern.
Hmm will have to wait and see if it all comes true or not ...

To arrive at this conclusion, the physicists applied a mathematical principle known as scale invariance – starting with the Higgs boson, they were able to determine the existence of the dilaton, a close cousin, as well as its properties. And it turns out that this new and as yet purely theoretical particle happens to have the exact characteristics to explain the existence of dark energy. This energy explains why the expansion of the current Universe is once again accelerating, but its origins are not understood.
It's all not as easy as it seemed before. All that undiscovered bosons and stuff ...



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Sep 1, 2010
6,120 (2.12/day)
December 13, 2011

Two experiments at the LHC have nearly eliminated the space in which the Higgs boson could dwell, scientists announced in a seminar held at CERN today.

They didn't find Higgs but they managed to narrow down the possible range and got some hints!

Theorists have predicted that some subatomic particles gain mass by interacting with other particles called Higgs bosons. The Higgs boson is the only undiscovered part of the Standard Model of physics, which describes the basic building blocks of matter and their interactions.
So here's what they found:

The experiments' main conclusion is that the Standard Model Higgs boson, if it exists, is most likely to have a mass constrained to the range 116-130 GeV by the ATLAS experiment, and 115-127 GeV by CMS.
I take a wild guess and think it's gotta be 125 or 126 Gev :p

Higgs boson "dies" pretty fast so it's just another hide n seek game

Higgs bosons, if they exist, are short-lived and can decay in many different ways. Just as a vending machine might return the same amount of change using different combinations of coins, the Higgs can decay into different combinations of particles.
In this case it's better to take a blackbox approach, if you can't directly observe it then try to analyze the output results

Discovery relies on observing statistically significant excesses of the particles into which they (Higgs bosons) decay rather than observing the Higgs itself.
It's far too early to say whether ATLAS and CMS have discovered the Higgs boson, but these updated results are generating a lot of interest. We'll have to wait until 2013-2014 to get more news, maybe by that time LHC will work with much higher energies.

Another possibility, discovering the absence of a Standard Model Higgs, would point to new physics at the LHC's full design energy, set to be achieved after 2014. Whether ATLAS and CMS show over the coming months that the Standard Model Higgs boson exists or not, the LHC program is closing in on new discoveries.


Yes, that's it: whatever they'll find will lead us to new physics. How knows maybe we'll even have a reason to believe in extra dimensions :) Keep on searching!

The mass of neutrinos and existence of Higgs boson (and Higgs field) will shed some light on everything: creation of universe and all other important questions. Why do we exist, is our universe actually 10D and so on. Here's my other post about Higgs boson from other thread :


Some extra links and info which you can read if you don't know or want to know more about Higgs Boson and Standard Model :



Wiki links:


Here's Factfile on LHC

-- The LHC comprises four huge labs interspersed around a ring-shaped tunnel located near Geneva, 27 km (16.9 miles) long and up to 175 m (568 feet) below ground.

-- Beams of hydrogen protons are accelerated in opposed directions to more than 99.9999% of the speed of light. Powerful superconducting magnets, chilled to a temperature colder than deep space, then "bend" the beams so that streams of particles collide within four large chambers.

- The smashups fleetingly generate temperatures 100,000 times hotter than the Sun, replicating the conditions that prevailed just after the "Big Bang" that created the Universe 13.7 billion years ago.

- Swathing the chambers are detectors that give a 3-D image of the traces of sub-atomic particles hurled out from the protons' destruction. These traces are then closely analysed in the search for movements, properties or novel particles that could advance our understanding of matter.

-- In top gear, the LHC is designed to generate nearly a billion collisions per second. Above ground, a farm of 3,000 computers, one of the largest in the world, instantly crunches the number down to about 100 collisions that are of the most interest.

-- Peak LHC collisions generate 14 teraelectron volts (TeV), amounting to a high concentration of energy but only at an extraordinarily tiny scale. One TeV is the equivalent energy of motion of a flying mosquito. There is no safety risk, says CERN (the European Organisation for Nuclear Research).

- Other LHC's investigations include supersymmetry -- the idea that more massive particles exists beyond those in the Standard Model -- and the mystery why anti-matter is so rare compared to matter, its counterpart. Supersymmetry could explain why visible matter only accounts for ~4% of the cosmos. Dark matter (23%) and dark energy (73%) account for the rest.

- Completed in 2008, the LHC cost 6.03 billion Swiss francs (roughly 5.9 billion euros, 4.5 billion dollars).
And here's A timeline of Particle physics

5th century BC: Greek philosopher Democritus suggests the Universe consists of empty space and of invisible and indivisible particles called atoms.

1802: John Dalton, a Quaker-educated English physicist and chemist, lays groundwork of modern theory of the elements and the atom.

1897: Electron discovered by Britain's Joseph Thomson, who later proposes a "plum pudding" model of the atom. He suggests the atom is a slightly positive sphere with raisin-like electrons inside that have a negative charge.

1899-1919: New Zealand physicist Ernest Rutherford identifies atomic nucleus, the proton and alpha and beta particles.

1920s: Advances in quantum theory, about the behaviour of matter at the atomic level.

1932: Neutron, similar to the proton but with no electrical charge, is discovered by James Chadwick of Britain. The first antiparticle, the positron (the mirror particle to the electron), is discovered by American Carl Anderson.

1934: Italy's Enrico Fermi postulates the existence of the neutrino (Italian for "little neutral one"), a neutral-charge partner to the electron. Theory is confirmed in 1959.

1950s: Invention of particle accelerator leads to surge in discoveries of sub-atomic particles.


- British physicist Peter Higgs postulates existence of a particle, later known as the Higgs Boson, that provides mass to otherwise massless particles.

- Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig of the United States propose that protons and neutrons are comprised of quarks.

1974: Development of the "Standard Model," a theory that everything in the Universe comprises 12 building blocks divided into two families, leptons and quarks, and these are governed by four fundamental forces.

1977-2000: Flurry of discoveries that strengthens Standard Model hypothesis, including the existence of bottom and top quarks, tau lepton, gluon, tau neutrino and the W and Z bosons which help carry the "weak" force.
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Get to String theory already....

I am tired of studying so much. Gets worse cause I'm an Asian