• Welcome to TechPowerUp Forums, Guest! Please check out our forum guidelines for info related to our community.

IBM Cools 3-D Chips with Water

malware

New Member
Joined
Nov 7, 2004
Messages
5,422 (1.12/day)
Likes
954
Location
Bulgaria
Processor Intel Core 2 Quad Q6600 G0 VID: 1.2125
Motherboard GIGABYTE GA-P35-DS3P rev.2.0
Cooling Thermalright Ultra-120 eXtreme + Noctua NF-S12 Fan
Memory 4x1 GB PQI DDR2 PC2-6400
Video Card(s) Colorful iGame Radeon HD 4890 1 GB GDDR5
Storage 2x 500 GB Seagate Barracuda 7200.11 32 MB RAID0
Display(s) BenQ G2400W 24-inch WideScreen LCD
Case Cooler Master COSMOS RC-1000 (sold), Cooler Master HAF-932 (delivered)
Audio Device(s) Creative X-Fi XtremeMusic + Logitech Z-5500 Digital THX
Power Supply Chieftec CFT-1000G-DF 1kW
Software Laptop: Lenovo 3000 N200 C2DT2310/3GB/120GB/GF7300/15.4"/Razer
#1
In IBM’s labs, tiny rivers of water are cooling computer chips that have circuits and components stacked on top of each other, a design that promises to advance Moore’s Law in the next decade and significantly reduce energy consumed by data centers. IBM Researchers, in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute in Berlin, demonstrated a prototype that integrates the cooling system into the 3-D chips by piping water directly between each layer in the stack.




These so-called 3-D chip stacks – which take chips and memory devices that traditionally sit side-by-side on a silicon wafer and stacks them together on top of one another -- presents one of the most promising approaches to enhancing chip performance beyond its predicted limits.

This follows IBM’s leadership in advancing chip-stacking technology in a manufacturing environment a year ago, which shortens the distance information on a chip needs to travel by 1000 times, and allows for the addition of up to 100 times more channels, or pathways, for that information to flow compared to 2-D chips.

“As we package chips on top of each other to significantly speed a processor’s capability to process data, we have found that conventional coolers attached to the back of a chip don’t scale. In order to exploit the potential of high-performance 3-D chip stacking, we need interlayer cooling,” explains Thomas Brunschwiler, project leader at IBM’s Zurich Research Laboratory. “Until now, nobody has demonstrated viable solutions to this problem.”

3-D chip stacks would have an aggregated heat dissipation of close to 1 kilowatt—10 times greater than the heat generated by a hotplate—with an area of 4 square centimeters and a thickness of about 1 millimeter. Moreover, each layer poses an additional barrier to heat removal.

Brunschwiler and his team piped water into cooling structures as thin as a human hair (50 microns) between the individual chip layers in order to remove heat efficiently at the source. Using the superior thermophysical qualities of water, scientists were able to demonstrate a cooling performance of up to 180 W/cm2 per layer for a stack with a typical footprint of 4 cm2.

“This truly constitutes a breakthrough. With classic backside cooling, the stacking of two or more high-power density logic layers would be impossible,” said Bruno Michel, manager of the chip cooling research efforts at the IBM Zurich Lab.

Technological Specifications
In these experiments, scientists piped water through a 1 by 1 cm test vehicle, consisting of a cooling layer between two dies or heat sources. The cooling layer measures only about 100 microns in height and is packed with 10,000 vertical interconnects per cm2.

The team overcame key technical challenges in designing a system that maximizes the water flow through the layers, yet hermetically seals the interconnects to prevent water from causing electrical shorts. The complexity of such a system resembles that of a human brain, wherein millions of nerves and neurons for signal transmissions are intermixed but do not interfere with tens of thousands of blood vessels for cooling and energy supply, all within the same volume.

The fabrication of the individual layers was accomplished with existing fabrication methods, except those needed to etch or drill the holes for signal transmission from one layer to the next. To insulate these “nerves”, scientists left a silicon wall around each interconnect (also called through silicon vias) and added a fine layer of silicon oxide to insulate the electrical interconnects from the water. The structures had to be fabricated to an accuracy of 10 microns, 10 times more accurate than for interconnects and metallizations in current chips.

To assemble the individual layers, Brunschwiler with colleagues from the Fraunhofer Institute developed a sophisticated thin-film soldering technique. Using this technique, scientists achieved the high quality, precision and robustness needed to ensure excellent thermal contacts as well as electrical contacts without shorts. In the final setup, the assembled stack is placed in a silicon cooling container resembling a miniature basin. The water is pumped into the container from one side and flows between the individual chip layers before exiting at the other side.

Using simulations, scientists extrapolated the experimental results of their test vehicle to a 4-cm2 chip stack and achieved a cooling performance of 180 W/cm2.

In further research, Brunschwiler and his team are working to optimize cooling systems for even smaller chip dimensions and more interconnects. They are also investigating additional sophisticated structures for hotspot cooling.

Chip-cooling innovations at IBM Research
This most recent advancement is part of IBM’s ambitious research efforts focused on cooling technologies that allow the reuse of heat generated by data centers by capturing water at its hottest and piping it into the building’s water and heating systems. This announcement marks an important step toward that goal by succeeding in getting water to the hottest parts of the computer chip, where cooling is critical.

The results were presented in a paper entitled “Forced convective interlayer cooling in vertically integrated packages” at the IEEE ITherm conference in Orlando, Florida, where it received a Best Paper award. This makes the third consecutive year in which the IBM Zurich Lab’s Advanced Thermal Packaging team was awarded for their chip-cooling innovations at leading IT cooling conferences.

Source: IBM
 

jbunch07

New Member
Joined
Feb 22, 2008
Messages
5,260 (1.45/day)
Likes
598
Location
Chattanooga,TN
Processor i5-2500k
Motherboard ASRock z68 pro3-m
Cooling Corsair A70
Memory Kingston HyperX 8GB 2 x 4GB 1600mhz
Storage OCZ Agility3 60GB(boot) 2x320GB Raid0(storage)
Display(s) Samsung 24" 1920x1200
Case Custom
Power Supply PC Power and Cooling 750w
Software Win 7 x64
#2
hmm very interesting.
IBM is always thinking of new and interesting to use water to cool devices.
 
Joined
Dec 15, 2006
Messages
1,155 (0.28/day)
Likes
305
Location
Oshkosh, WI
System Name ChoreBoy
Processor FX-9590
Motherboard Gigabyte GA-990FX-Gaming
Cooling Silverstone HE01
Memory 4x4GB Dominator Platinum 2400Mhz
Video Card(s) Asus 780 Poseidon (only on air)
Storage 250GB Samsung 850 EVO and the trusty old 250GB Barracuda
Display(s) 32" 1080p TV and 22" Dell 1680x1050....
Case Raidmax Monster II SE
Audio Device(s) On-Board
Power Supply 1000w Corsair
Software Win 10 Pro
Benchmark Scores A million on everything....
#3
I wanna bonk "Moore" on the head for his "law".
 
Joined
Aug 30, 2006
Messages
6,377 (1.53/day)
Likes
984
System Name ICE-QUAD // ICE-CRUNCH
Processor Q6600 // 2x Xeon 5472
Memory 2GB DDR // 8GB FB-DIMM
Video Card(s) HD3850-AGP // FireGL 3400
Display(s) 2 x Samsung 204Ts = 3200x1200
Audio Device(s) Audigy 2
Software Windows Server 2003 R2 as a Workstation now migrated to W10 with regrets.
#4
Oh what a lot of spinonsense

3-D chip stacks would have an aggregated heat dissipation of close to 1 kilowatt—10 times greater than the heat generated by a hotplate—with an area of 4 square centimeters and a thickness of about 1 millimeter
1./ No way 1 KW in a 3D chipstack that size. It is not tractable. 3D chipstacks are for high-density, low power devices. FLASH memory is a perfect example. L3 cache is (possibly) another example. Or a "matrix" of "atoms". But NOT 10x Xeon Extremes on top of each other, or 10x RV770 GPUs on top of each other, AT CURRENT power requirements.
2./ 2cm x 2cm x 0.1cm WTF? That's not a stack. That's FLAT. Perhaps they mean ONE layer of a stack has those dimensions.
The complexity of such a system resembles that of a human brain, wherein millions of nerves and neurons for signal transmissions
1./ What a lot of blab. A cooling system, consisting of TUBES and WATER, as complex as the brain. LOL
2./ Anyone knows that water is "thick" and laws of fluid dynamics mean that pushing water through small holes is not only difficult but incredible inefficient. So the PRESSURE of this system is going to require some HUGE pump/compressor with high pressure valves and hosing. Right. LOL
In these experiments, scientists piped water through a 1 by 1 cm test vehicle, consisting of a cooling layer between two heat sources...Using simulations...
1./ OMG, this was a high-school theory paper, not even built as a prototype
2./ They used WHAT? A heat source and a honeycomb, two paper cups and a piece of string.


Anyone else get the impression that the article was NOT written by the scientists, but a lady journalist sitting in the audience, writing for some college rag?
 
Last edited:

russianboy

New Member
Joined
Dec 9, 2005
Messages
1,799 (0.41/day)
Likes
78
Processor AMD 3500+ Venice at stock
Motherboard ECS K8T890-A
Memory 1 Gb Corsair Valueram CAS 3
Video Card(s) Connect3d X800 GTO OC'd to 551.25/551.25
Storage 4 mixed up drives
Display(s) Acer AL2216W 22"LCD
Case Generic noname crap
Audio Device(s) Realtec AC'97
Power Supply 500 watt Ultra PSU
Software Win2k Pro, XP, Ubuntu linux, and Vista
#5
Yeah, I agree with lemonade, the spaces would be too small to pump enough water (at a safe pressure) to the chip to cool it enough. Plus it would pose a bunch of problems, like mass fabrication, cost (something like this could very well be extremely expensive) and durability issues.

I really don't think this is feasible.
 
Joined
Jun 5, 2005
Messages
4,640 (1.01/day)
Likes
415
Location
Toronto, Canada
System Name old school / new school
Processor 3.0e C0 @ 3.6 / e5200
Motherboard p4p800e-dlx / p5q-DLX
Cooling custom water see sig / air
Memory 2x1g oczPC4000EbPl / 2x2g ocz2rpr1066
Video Card(s) 3850AGP / 4890vaporX
Storage 36g raptor+120g wd / wd 1001fals 1tb
Display(s) BenQ / sharpAQUOS LC-37D64U
Case modded antec plusview / generic
Audio Device(s) audigy 2zs / ASUS Xonar HDAV1.3
Power Supply fan/cable modded powerstream 520 / OCZ 700mxsp
Software Xp pro SP2 / VISTA ultimate OEM
#6
maybe you guys should work for IBM
 

russianboy

New Member
Joined
Dec 9, 2005
Messages
1,799 (0.41/day)
Likes
78
Processor AMD 3500+ Venice at stock
Motherboard ECS K8T890-A
Memory 1 Gb Corsair Valueram CAS 3
Video Card(s) Connect3d X800 GTO OC'd to 551.25/551.25
Storage 4 mixed up drives
Display(s) Acer AL2216W 22"LCD
Case Generic noname crap
Audio Device(s) Realtec AC'97
Power Supply 500 watt Ultra PSU
Software Win2k Pro, XP, Ubuntu linux, and Vista
#7
nah, I'm only good at criticizing at something people have worked for a long time on, I'm not able to create something ingenious myself.
 

DrPepper

The Doctor is in the house
Joined
Jan 16, 2008
Messages
7,482 (2.04/day)
Likes
799
Location
Scotland (It rains alot)
System Name Rusky
Processor Intel Core i7 D0 3.8Ghz
Motherboard Asus P6T
Cooling Thermaltake Dark Knight
Memory 12GB Patriot Viper's 1866mhz 9-9-9-24
Video Card(s) GTX470 1280MB
Storage OCZ Summit 60GB + Samsung 1TB + Samsung 2TB
Display(s) Sharp Aquos L32X20E 1920 x 1080
Case Silverstone Raven RV01
Power Supply Corsair 650 Watt
Software Windows 7 x64
Benchmark Scores 3DMark06 - 18064 http://img.techpowerup.org/090720/Capture002.jpg
#8
I wonder what happens if a pipe leaks .... new cpu anyone.
 

Mussels

Moderprator
Staff member
Joined
Oct 6, 2004
Messages
46,208 (9.51/day)
Likes
13,696
Location
Australalalalalaia.
System Name Daddy Long Legs
Processor Ryzen R7 1700, 3.9GHz 1.375v
Motherboard MSI X370 Gaming PRO carbon
Cooling Fractal Celsius S24 (Silent fans, meh pump)
Memory 16GB 2133 generic @ 2800
Video Card(s) MSI GTX 1080 Gaming X (BIOS modded to Gaming Z - faster and solved black screen bugs!)
Storage 1TB Intel SSD Pro 6000p (60TB USB3 storage)
Display(s) Samsung 4K 40" HDTV (UA40KU6000WXXY) / 27" Qnix 2K 110Hz
Case Fractal Design R5. So much room, so quiet...
Audio Device(s) Pioneer VSX-519V + Yamaha YHT-270 / sennheiser HD595/518 + Corsair Void RGB
Power Supply Corsair HX 750i (Platinum, fan off til 300W)
Mouse Logitech G403 + KKmoon desk-sized mousepad
Keyboard Corsair K65 Rapidfire
Software Windows 10 pro x64 (all systems)
Benchmark Scores Laptops: i7-4510U + 840M 2GB (touchscreen) 275GB SSD + 16GB i7-2630QM + GT 540M + 8GB
#9
this is IBM, theory or not they'll make something from it.

At least they're working on it, rather than slapping a bigger heatsink on.
 
Joined
Aug 4, 2007
Messages
3,830 (1.00/day)
Likes
281
Location
Netherlands
System Name HP z800 workstation
Processor Intel Xeon X5687 3,60ghz 12mb cache x2
Motherboard HP Z800
Cooling all on air
Memory 24gb ecc ram 1333mhz
Video Card(s) sapphire pulse RX 580 8gb
Storage 300gb harddisk and 1tb harddisk 128gb ssd OS 160gb pci-e ssd Fusion io drive
Display(s) Acer KA210HQ
Case HP z800 workstation case
Audio Device(s) Onboard
Power Supply HP z800 1100 watt
Mouse Drakonia Black
Keyboard Xtrust nameless?
Software Windows 7 ultimate 64bit, Luxion Keyshot 5, 3ds max 2016, fusion 360
Benchmark Scores 3d mark 11 p15601
#10
i like it i want it :D