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The Space Race

CAPSLOCKSTUCK

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#1



There is some reading to start then loads of pictures, clickable links to wiki for more detailed info and videos.
:toast:
A brief history of rocketry

Today's rockets are remarkable collections of human ingenuity that have their roots in the science and technology of the past. They are natural outgrowths of literally thousands of years of experimentation and research on rockets and rocket propulsion.

One of the first devices to successfully employ the principles essential to rocket flight was a wooden bird. The writings of Aulus Gellius, a Roman, tell a story of a Greek named Archytas who lived in the city of Tarentum, now a part of southern Italy. Somewhere around the year 400 B.C., Archytas mystified and amused the citizens of Tarentum by flying a pigeon made of wood. Escaping steam propelled the bird suspended on wires. The pigeon used the action-reaction principle, which was not stated as a scientific law until the 17th century.

About three hundred years after the pigeon, another Greek, Hero of Alexandria, invented a similar rocket-like device called an aeolipile. It, too, used steam as a propulsive gas.



Hero mounted a sphere on top of a water kettle. A fire below the kettle turned the water into steam, and the gas traveled through pipes to the sphere. Two L-shaped tubes on opposite sides of the sphere allowed the gas to escape, and in doing so gave a thrust to the sphere that caused it to rotate.

Just when the first true rockets appeared is unclear. Stories of early rocket like devices appear sporadically through the historical records of various cultures. Perhaps the first true rockets were accidents. In the first century A.D., the Chinese reportedly had a simple form of gunpowder made from saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal dust. To create explosions during religous festivals, they filled bamboo tubes with a mixture and tossed them into fires. Perhaps some of those tubes failed to explode and instead skittered out of the fires, propelled by the gases and sparks produced by the burning gunpowder.


The Chinese began experimenting with the gunpowder-filled tubes. At some point, they attached bamboo tubes to arrows and launched them with bows. Soon they discovered that these gunpowder tubes could launch themselves just by the power produced from the escaping gas. The true rocket was born.
The date reporting the first use of true rockets was in 1232. At this time, the Chinese and the Mongols were at war with each other. During the battle of Kai-Keng, the Chinese repelled the Mongol invaders by a barrage of "arrows of flying fire." These fire-arrows were a simple form of a solid-propellant rocket. A tube, capped at one end, contained gunpowder. The other end was left open and the tube was attached to a long stick. When the powder was ignited, the rapid burning of the powder produced fire, smoke, and gas that escaped out the open end and produced a thrust. The stick acted as a simple guidance system that kept the rocket headed in one general direction as it flew through the air. It is not clear how effective these arrows of flying fire were as weapons of destruction, but their psychological effects on the Mongols must have been formidable.
Following the battle of Kai-Keng, the Mongols produced rockets of their own and may have been responsible for the spread of rockets to Europe. All through the 13th to the 15th centuries there were reports of many rocket experiments. In England, a monk named Roger Bacon worked on improved forms of gunpowder that greatly increased the range of rockets. In France, Jean Froissart found that more accurate flights could be achieved by launching rockets through tubes. Froissart's idea was the forerunner of the modern bazooka. Joanes de Fontana of Italy designed a surface-running rocket-powered torpedo for setting enemy ships on fire.


By the 16th century rockets fell into a time of disuse as weapons of war, though they were still used for fireworks displays, and a German fireworks maker, Johann Schmidlap, invented the "step rocket," a multi-staged vehicle for lifting fireworks to higher altitudes. A large sky rocket (first stage) carried a smaller sky rocket (second stage). When the large rocket burned out, the smaller
one continued to a higher altitude before showering the sky with glowing cinders. Schmidlap's idea is basic to all rockets today that go into outer space.

Nearly all uses of rockets up to this time were for warfare or fireworks, but there is an interesting old Chinese legend that reported the use of rockets as a means of transportation. With the help of many assistants, a lesser-known Chinese official named Wan-Hu assembled a rocket- powered flying chair. Attached to the chair were two large kites, and fixed to the kites were forty- seven fire-arrow rockets.

On the day of the flight, Wan-Hu sat himself on the chair and gave the command to light the rockets. Forty-seven rocket assistants, each armed with torches, rushed forward to light the fuses. In a moment, there was a tremendous roar accompanied by billowing clouds of smoke. When the smoke cleared, Wan-Hu and his flying chair were gone. No one knows for sure what happened to Wan-Hu, but it is probable that if the event really did take place, Wan-Hu and his chair were blown to pieces. Fire-arrows were as apt to explode as to fly.

Rocketry Becomes a Science
During the latter part of the 17th century, the scientific foundations for modern rocketry were laid by the great English scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727). Newton organized his understanding of physical motion into three scientific laws. The laws explain how rockets work and why they are able to work in the vacuum of outer space. Newton's laws soon began to have a practical impact on the design of rockets. About 1720, a Dutch professor, Willem Gravesande, built model cars propelled by jets of steam. Rocket experimenters in Germany and Russia

began working with rockets with a mass of more than 45 kilograms. Some of these rockets were so powerful that their escaping exhaust flames bored deep holes in the ground even before lift-off.

During the end of the 18th century and early into the 19th, rockets experienced a brief revival as a weapon of war. The success of Indian rocket barrages against the British in 1792 and again in 1799 caught the interest of an artillery expert, Colonel William Congreve. Congreve set out to design rockets for use by the British military.

The Congreve rockets were highly successful in battle. Used by British ships to pound Fort McHenry in the War of 1812, they inspired Francis Scott Key to write "the rockets' red glare," words in his poem that later became The Star- Spangled Banner.

Even with Congreve's work, the accuracy of rockets still had not improved much from the early days. The devastating nature of war rockets was not their accuracy or power, but their numbers. During a typical siege, thousands of them might be fired at the enemy. All over the world, rocket researchers experimented with ways to improve accuracy. An Englishman, William Hale, developed a technique called spin stabilization. In this method, the escaping exhaust gases struck small vanes at the bottom of the rocket, causing it to spin much as a bullet does in flight. Variations of the principle are still used today.

Rockets continued to be used with success in battles all over the European continent. However, in a war with Prussia, the Austrian rocket brigades met their match against newly designed artillery pieces. Breech-loading cannon with rifled barrels and exploding warheads were far more effective weapons of war than the best rockets. Once again, rockets were relegated to peacetime uses.

Modern Rocketry Begins
In 1898, a Russian schoolteacher, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), proposed the idea of space exploration by rocket. In a report he published in 1903, Tsiolkovsky suggested the use of liquid propellants for rockets in order to achieve greater range. Tsiolkovsky stated that the speed and range of a rocket were limited only by the exhaust velocity of escaping gases. For his ideas, careful research, and great vision, Tsiolkovsky has been called the father of modern astronautics.
Early in the 20th century, an American, Robert H. Goddard (1882-1945), conducted practical experiments in rocketry. He had become interested in a way of achieving higher altitudes than were possible for lighter-than-air balloons. He published a pamphlet in 1919 entitled A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes. It was a mathematical analysis of what is today called the meteorological sounding rocket.

Goddard's earliest experiments were with solid-propellant rockets. In 1915, he began to try various types of solid fuels and to measure the exhaust velocities of the burning gases. While working on solid-propellant rockets, Goddard became convinced that a rocket could be propelled better by liquid fuel. No one had ever built a successful liquid-propellant rocket before. It was a much more difficult task than building solid- propellant rockets. Fuel and oxygen tanks, turbines, and combustion chambers would be needed. In spite of the difficulties, Goddard achieved the first successful flight with a liquid- propellant rocket on March 16, 1926. Fueled by liquid oxygen and gasoline, the rocket flew for only two and a half seconds, climbed 12.5 meters, and landed 56 meters away in a cabbage patch. By today's standards, the flight was unimpressive, but like the first powered airplane flight by the Wright brothers in 1903, Goddard's gasoline rocket was the forerunner of a whole new era in rocket flight.


Goddard's experiments in liquid-propellant rockets continued for many years. His rockets became bigger and flew higher. He developed a gyroscope system for flight control and a payload compartment for scientific instruments. Parachute recovery systems were employed to return rockets and instruments safely. Goddard, for his achievements, has been called the father of modern rocketry.

A third great space pioneer, Hermann Oberth (1894-1989) born on June 25, 1894 in Hermannstadt (Transylvania), and died on December 28, 1989 in Nuremberg, Germany, published a book in 1923 about rocket travel into outer space. His writings were important. Because of them, many small rocket societies sprang up around the world. In Germany, the formation of one such society, the Verein fur Raumschiffahrt (Society for Space Travel), led to the development of the V-2 rocket, which was used against London during World War II. In 1937, German engineers and scientists, including Oberth, assembled in Peenemunde on the shores of the Baltic Sea. There the most advanced rocket of its time would be built and flown under the directorship of Wernher von Braun.


The V-2 rocket (in Germany called the A-4) was small by comparison to today's rockets. It achieved its great thrust by burning a mixture of liquid oxygen and alcohol at a rate of about one ton every seven seconds. Once launched, the V-2 was a formidable weapon that could devastate whole city blocks.

Fortunately for London and the Allied forces, the V-2 came too late in the war to change its outcome. Nevertheless, by war's end, German rocket scientists and engineers had already laid plans for advanced missiles capable of spanning the Atlantic Ocean and landing in the United States. These missiles would have had winged upper stages but very small payload capacities.

With the fall of Germany, many unused V-2 rockets and components were captured by the Allies. Many German rocket scientists came to the United States. Others went to the Soviet Union. The German scientists, including Wernher von Braun, were amazed at the progress Goddard had made.

Both the United States and the Soviet Union realized the potential of rocketry as a military weapon and began a variety of experimental programs. At first, the United States began a program with high-altitude atmospheric sounding rockets, one of Goddard's early ideas. Later, a variety of medium- and long-range intercontinental ballistic missiles were developed. These became the starting point of the U.S. space program. Missiles such as the Redstone, Atlas, and Titan would eventually launch astronauts into space.

On October 4, 1957, the world was stunned by the

news of an Earth-orbiting artificial satellite launched by the Soviet Union. Called Sputnik I, the satellite was the first successful entry in a race for space between the two superpower nations. Less than a month later, the Soviets followed with the launch of a satellite carrying a dog named Laika on board. Laika survived in space for seven days before being put to sleep before the oxygen supply ran out.
A few months after the first Sputnik, the United States followed the Soviet Union with a satellite of its own. Explorer I was launched by the U.S. Army on January 31, 1958. In October of that year, the United States formally organized its space program by creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA became a civilian agency with the goal of peaceful exploration of space for the benefit of all humankind.

Soon, many people and machines were being launched into space. Astronauts orbited Earth and landed on the Moon. Robot spacecraft traveled to the planets. Space was suddenly opened up to exploration and commercial exploitation. Satellites enabled scientists to investigate our world, forecast the weather, and to communicate instantaneously around the globe. As the demand for more and larger payloads increased, a wide array of powerful and versatile rockets had to be built.

Since the earliest days of discovery and experimentation, rockets have evolved from simple gunpowder devices into giant vehicles capable of traveling into outer space. Rockets have opened the universe to direct exploration by humankind.


.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................


When i was 3 1/2 i watched through a TV shop window with my Dad when Neil Armstrong stepped on to the Moon..........
by the last Apollo misson in 1972 i was 6 and we had our own telly. So...some of my earliest recollections is of space travel.




August 21, 1957 First intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)R-7 Semyorka


October 4, 1957 First artificial satellite
First signals from space Sputnik 1



November 3, 1957 First animal in orbit (dog Laika)Sputnik 2



January 31, 1958 First US satellite, detection of Van Allen radiation beltsExplorer 1-ABMA




March 17, 1958 First solar powered satelliteVanguard 1-NRL



December 18, 1958 First communications satelliteProject SCORE-ABMA



January 2, 1959 First rocket engine restart in Earth orbit
First lunar spacecraft
First detection of solar windLuna 1

January 4, 1959 First human-made object in heliocentric orbitLuna 1


February 17, 1959 First weather satelliteVanguard 2-NASA (NRL)1



February 28, 1959 First satellite in a polar orbitDiscoverer 1-USAF/ARPA

June 25, 1959 First spy satellite to carry a camera (failed to achieve orbit)Discoverer 4-USAF/ARPA




August 7, 1959 First photograph of Earth from orbitExplorer 6-NASA









September 14, 1959 First impact into another celestial body (Moon)Luna 2




October 7, 1959 First photos of far side of the MoonLuna 3



April 1, 1960 First Imaging weather satelliteTIROS-1-NASA

The first television image of Earth from space transmitted by the TIROS-1weather satellite in 1960.




July 5, 1960 First successful US spy satellite (returned intelligence data)GRAB-1-NRL



August 11, 1960 First satellite recovered intact from orbitDiscoverer 13-USAF/ARPA



August 12, 1960 First passive communications satelliteEcho 1A-NASA




August 18, 1960 First successful recovery of film from an orbiting satellite
First aerial recovery of an object returning from Earth orbitDiscoverer 14-USAF/ARPA

August 19, 1960 First animals and plants returned alive from spaceSputnik 5


1961–1969

February 12, 1961 First launch from Earth orbit of upper stage into a heliocentric orbit
First mid-course corrections
First spin-stabilisationVenera 1





April 12, 1961 First human spaceflight (Yuri Gagarin)
First orbital flight of a manned vehicleVostok 1




May 5, 1961 First pilot-controlled space flight (Alan Shepard)Freedom 7




May 19, 1961 First planetary flyby (Venus)Venera 1 pic above


March 7, 1962 First orbital solar observatoryOSO-1-NASA




July 10, 1962 First active communications satelliteTelstar-AT&T




August 12, 1962 First ship-to-ship radio contactVostok 3 / Vostok 4


September 29, 1962 First artificial satellite constructed by a non-superpower
CanadaAlouette 1




December 14, 1962 First planetary flyby by a US mission (Venus)Mariner 2-NASA




June 16, 1963 First woman in space (Valentina Tereshkova)
First civilian in spaceVostok 6





June 19, 1963 Five-day human spaceflight recordVostok 5




July 19, 1963 First reusable piloted spacecraft (X-15, suborbital)X-15 Flight 90-NASA






July 26, 1963 First geosynchronous satelliteSyncom 2-NASA





December 5, 1963 First satellite navigation systemNAVSAT-USN




August 19, 1964 First geostationary satelliteSyncom 3-NASA




October 12, 1964 First multi-person crew (3)Voskhod 1
March 18, 1965 First extra-vehicular activity ("space walk")Voskhod 2





March 23, 1965 First piloted spacecraft orbit changeGemini 3-NASA
Young and Grissom



July 14, 1965 First Mars flybyMariner 4-NASA





August 29, 1965 Eight-day human spaceflight recordGemini 5-NASA





December 15, 1965 First orbital rendezvous (station-keeping, no docking)2Gemini 6A / Gemini 7-NASA





December 18, 1965 14-day human spaceflight recordGemini 7-NASA




February 3, 1966 First soft landing on another celestial body (Moon)
First photos from another celestial bodyLuna 9





March 1, 1966 First impact into another planet (Venus)Venera 3




March 16, 1966 First spacecraft dockingGemini 8 / ATV-NASA



Gemini 8 and target vehicle AGENA



April 3, 1966 First artificial satellite to orbit another celestial body: the MoonLuna 10




September 12, 1966 First direct-ascent rendezvous on first orbit
Record highest apogee, 1,374 kilometers (854 mi), for piloted Earth orbitGemini 11/ATV-NASA




November 12–14, 1966 First 5.5 hr extra-vehicular activity
First demonstration of practical work capabilityGemini 12-NASA
Edwin E Aldrin BUZZ



October 30, 1967 First docking of two remote-controlled spacecraftCosmos 186/ Cosmos 188




December 7, 1968 First orbital ultraviolet observatoryOAO-2-NASA




December 21, 1968 First human-crewed spaceflight to, and orbit of, another celestial object: the MoonApollo 8-NASA





January 16, 1969 First crew exchange in spaceSoyuz 4 /
Soyuz 5




July 20, 1969 First humans on the Moon
First space launch from another celestial bodyApollo 11-NASA

http://www.space.com/26563-apollo-1...eo.html#ooid=htb2V5cDqu14grEXjbLsYx8Ge5OWFQGz



November 19, 1969 First precisely targeted piloted landing on the Moon (Surveyor 3 site)




First man to dance on the Moon (Pete Conrad)



The Soviet Union had attempted an earlier rendezvous on August 12, 1962. However, Vostok 3 and Vostok 4 only came within five kilometers of one another, and operated in different orbital planes. Pravda did not mention this information, but indicated that a rendezvous had taken place.

1970–1975

September 24, 1970 First robotic automatic sample return from another celestial body: the MoonLuna 16



November 23, 1970 First remote-controlled mobile vehicle on another celestial body: the MoonLunokhod 1



December 12, 1970 First X-ray orbital observatoryUhuru (satellite)-NASA



December 15, 1970 First soft landing on another planet (Venus)
First signals from another planetVenera 7



April 23, 1971 First human-crewed space station launchedSalyut 1 departing from Soyuz 11



June 29, 1971 First human-crewed orbital observatory (Orion 1)
23-day manned space recordSoyuz 11 / Salyut 1



July 31, 1971 First mobile vehicle lunar rover driven by humans on the MoonApollo 15-NASA



November 14, 1971 First spacecraft to orbit another planet: MarsMariner 9-NASA


November 27, 1971 First impact into MarsMars 2

December 2, 1971 First soft Mars landing
First signals from Mars surfaceMars 3 MARS 3 was identical to MARS 2 as pictured above.




March 3, 1972 First human-made object sent on escape trajectory away from the SunPioneer 10-NASA

July 15, 1972 First mission to enter the asteroid belt and leave inner solar systemPioneer 10-NASA



November 9, 1972 First commercially operated domestic satellite in geostationary orbit
CanadaAnik A1-Telesat



November 15, 1972 First orbital gamma ray observatorySAS-2-NASA



May 25, 1973 28-day human-crewed space recordSkylab 1-NASA




July 28, 1973 56-day human-crewed space recordSkylab 2-NASA



November 16, 1974 84-day human-crewed space recordSkylab 3-NASA



December 3, 1974 First Jupiter flybyPioneer 10-NASA



February 5, 1974 First planetary gravitational assist (Venus flyby)Mariner 10-NASA

March 29, 1974 First Mercury flybyMariner 10-NASA


July 15, 1975 First multinational human-crewed mission9Soyuz 19Apollo–Soyuz Test Project
pic is Apollo



 
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#2
"Anybody out there have any technical or other experience of rocket propulsion?"

I believe @RealNeil retired from the Aerospace Industry.
 

CAPSLOCKSTUCK

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#3
One short vid on V2 rocket failures

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OdBh54MoZRE







Post War........ Pre Space Race



The first images from space V2 launched by the US on Oct 10 1946



V-2 Rocket Films Earth (1946)

A fantastic piece of history
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sykfqa3MKAghttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sykfqa3MKAg



The Naval Research laboratory did a lot of rocketry research. V2 technology helped them design Sounding Rockets for upper air research but V2's had limitations...read the article, its very good.

It gives an insight into a Rockoon for example, a mix of rocket and balloon

http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4401/ch4.htm



VIKING ROCKET, second test, Sept. 6, 1949





Cajun Rocket 1956


Height2.64 metres (8.66 ft)
Diameter200 millimetres (8 in)
Mass75 kilograms (166 lb)
StagesOne
Launch history
StatusRetired
Launch sitesWallops Island, Fort Churchill,Eglin AFB, others
Total launches802
Failures33
First flightJune 20, 1956
Last flightOctober 6, 1976



:respect:MANNED SPACE FLIGHT


Project Mercury







Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1959 through 1963. An early highlight of the Space Race, its goal was to put a solo human into Earth orbitand return the person safely, ideally before the Soviet Union. Taken over from theUS Air Force by the newly created civilian space agencyNASA, it spanned twenty unmanned developmental missions involving test animals, and successful missions completed by six of the seven Mercury astronauts.



This shows the escape system to eject crew
( notably no such system was used with the Shuttle program)



Project Gemini




Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflightprogram. It was a United States government civilian space program started in 1961 and concluded in 1966. Project Gemini was conducted between projects Mercury andApollo. The Gemini spacecraft carried a two-astronaut crew. Ten crews flew low Earth orbit(LEO) missions between 1965 and 1966. It put the United States in the lead during theCold WarSpace Race with the Soviet Union.



Project Apollo









 
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#4
It's not really rocket propulsion, but we were working on parts for the new EMALS, electromagnetic launch system for aircraft carriers, which has also been carriered over to surface weapons.
 

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#5
It's not really rocket propulsion, but we were working on parts for the new EMALS, electromagnetic launch system for aircraft carriers, which has also been carriered over to surface weapons.
http://www.ga.com/emals

come on then....................top secret info please :toast:

Arent these systems being designed for mass transport systems.?
Dont they use it to accelerate/decelerate roller coaster rides ?
 
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#6
http://www.ga.com/emals

come on then....................top secret info please :toast:
We couldn't talk about it till ,and don't think any public, or even most militray had any idea about this 5 years ago;) especially since we were making part's, because of getting it ready to deploy for retro-fit on A/C's, and "Ground Based Attack Systems"
 

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#7
Human Space Flight Vehicles
Escape rocket in action




WOW
look at the size of ISS

Heres some stuff about Saturn V. The largest manned rocket...............so far




The Saturn V (spoken as "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1966 and 1973. The three-stage liquid-fueled launch vehicle was developed to support the Apollo program for human exploration of theMoon, and was later used to launch Skylab, the first American space station. The Saturn V was launched 13 times from theKennedy Space Center in Florida with no loss of crew or payload. The Saturn V remains the tallest, heaviest, and most powerful rocket ever brought to operational status and still holds records for the heaviest payload launched and largest payload capacity to low Earth orbit (LEO) of 118,000 kilograms (260,000 lb).[3][4]

The largest production model of the Saturn family of rockets, the Saturn V was designed under the direction of Wernher von Braun and Arthur Rudolph at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, with Boeing, North American Aviation,Douglas Aircraft Company, and IBM as the lead contractors. Von Braun's design was based in part on his work on the Aggregateseries of rockets, especially the A-10, A-11, and A-12, in Germany during World War II.

To date, the Saturn V remains the only launch vehicle able to transport human beings beyond low Earth orbit. A total of 24astronauts were launched to the Moon, three of them twice, in the four years spanning December 1968 through December 1972.


Here is an ace video of the launch of a Saturn V. The mission was Apollo 8. Apollo 8 was the first human spaceflight to leave Earth orbit and go to the Moon.



Delta iv Heavy launch 2013


Delta iv Heavy launch 2014 ( 2 mins after launch the craft weighs 1/2 what it did on the pad)





Delta ii Failure 1997

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_aHEit-SqA


The Russians had a monster as well N1




3rd July 1967 look what happened................shit.
Check the time on the vid, its nearly 4th July. Dates are so significant in the space race.




An excellent video about how advanced the N1 was and how much the US benefited from it.
If you like this kind of thing you will love this one. The USSR learned through testing so a lot of failures.




Ariane 5
 
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#8
Reusable Launch systems

Ive added pics to what is on wiki, loads of clickable bits on wiki



NEXUS never built 1960's



Spacex currently still undergoing tests



Unfortunately one of these crashed in January...look how close it got though. Amazing footage. I so hope they make it work soon.



A reusable launch system (or reusable launch vehicle, RLV) is a launch system which is capable of launching a launch vehicle into space more than once. This contrasts withexpendable launch systems, where each launch vehicle is launched once and then discarded.

No true orbital reusable launch system is currently in use. The closest example was the partially reusable Space Shuttle. The orbiter, which included the main engines, and the two solid rocket boosters, were reused after several months of refitting work for each launch. The external tank and launch vehicle load frame were discarded after each flight.[1][2]

Orbital RLVs are thought to provide the possibility of low cost and highly reliable access to space. However, reusability implies weight penalties such as non-ablative reentry shielding and possibly a stronger structure to survive multiple uses, and given the lack of experience with these vehicles, the actual costs and reliability are yet to be seen.

In the first half of the twentieth century, popular science fiction often depicted space vehicles as either single-stage reusable rocket ships which could launch and land vertically (SSTOVTVL), or single-stage reusablerocket planes which could launch and land horizontally (SSTO HTHL).

The realities of early engine technology with lowspecific impulse or insufficient thrust-to-weight ratio to escape Earth's gravity well, compounded by construction materials without adequate performance (strength, stiffness, heat resistance) and low weight, seemingly rendered that original single-stage reusable vehicle vision impossible.

However, advances in materials and engine technology have rendered this concept potentially feasible.

Before VTVL SSTO designs came the partially reusable multi-stage NEXUS launcher by Krafft Arnold Ehricke. The pioneer in the field of VTVL SSTO, Philip Bono, worked at Douglas. Bono proposed several launch vehicles including: ROOST,ROMBUS, Ithacus, Pegasus and SASSTO. Most of his vehicles combined similar innovations to achieve SSTO capability. Bono proposed:

  • Plug nozzle engines to retain high specific impulse at all altitudes.
  • Base first reentry which allowed the reuse of the engine as a heat shield, lowering required heat shield mass.
  • Use of spherical tanks and stubby shape to reduce vehicle structural mass further.
  • Use of drop tanks to increase range.
  • Use of in-orbit refueling to increase range.
Bono also proposed the use of his vehicles for space launch, rapid intercontinental military transport (Ithacus), rapid intercontinental civilian transport (Pegasus), even Moon and Mars missions (Project Selena, Project Deimos).

In Europe, Dietrich Koelle, inspired by Bono's SASSTO design, proposed his own VTVL vehicle named BETA.

Before HTHL SSTO designs came Eugen Sänger and hisSilbervogel ("Silverbird") suborbital skip bomber. HTHL vehicles which can reach orbital velocity are harder to design than VTVL due to their higher vehicle structural weight. This led to several multi-stage prototypes such as a suborbital X-15.Aerospaceplane being one of the first HTHL SSTO concepts. Proposals have been made to make such a vehicle more viable including:

  • Rail boost (e.g. 270 m/s at 3000 m on a mountain allowing 35% less SSTO takeoff mass for a given payload in one NASA study)[3]
  • Use of lifting body designs to reduce vehicle structural mass.
  • Use of in-flight refueling.
Other launch system configuration designs are possible such as horizontal launch with vertical landing (HTVL) and vertical launch with horizontal landing (VTHL). One of the few HTVL vehicles is the 1960s concept spacecraft Hyperion SSTO, designed by Philip Bono.[4] X-20 Dyna-Soar is an early example of a VTHL design,[citation needed] while the HL-20 and X-34 are examples from the 1990s.[citation needed] As of February 2010, the VTHL X-37 has completed initial development and flown an initial classified orbital mission of over seven months duration.[citation needed] Currently proposed VTHL mannedspaceplanes include the Dream Chaser and Prometheus, both circa 2010 concept spaceplanes proposed to NASA under theCCDev program.[citation needed]

The late 1960s saw the start of the Space Shuttle design process. From an initial multitude of ideas a two-stage reusableVTHL design was pushed forward that eventually resulted in a reusable orbiter payload spacecraft and reusable solid rocketboosters. The external tank and the launch vehicle load framewere discarded. Early studies from 1980 and 1982 proposed in-space uses for the tank to be re-used in space for various applications[1][2] but NASA never pursued those options beyond the proposal stage.

During the 1970s further VTVL and HTHL SSTO designs were proposed for solar power satellite and military applications. There was a VTVL SSTO study by Boeing. HTHL SSTO designs included the Rockwell Star-Raker and the BoeingHTHL SSTO study. However the focus of all space launch funding in the United States on the Shuttle killed off these prospects. The Soviet Union followed suit with Buran. Others preferred expendables for their lower design risk, and lower design cost.

Eventually the Shuttle was found to be expensive to maintain, even more expensive than an expendable launch system would have been. The cancellation of a Shuttle-Centaur rocket after the loss of Challenger also caused an hiatus that would make it necessary for the United States military to scramble back towards expendables to launch their payloads. Many commercial satellite customers had switched to expendables even before that, due to unresponsiveness to customer concerns by the Shuttle launch system.

In 1986 President Ronald Reagan called for an airbreathingscramjet plane to be built by the year 2000, called NASP/X-30that would be capable of SSTO. Based on the research projectcopper canyon the project failed due to severe technical issues and was cancelled in 1993.

This research may have inspired the British HOTOL program, which rather than airbreathing to high hypersonic speeds as with NASP, proposed to use a precooler up to Mach 5.5. The program's funding was canceled by the British government when the research identified some technical risks as well as indicating that that particular vehicle architecture would only be able to deliver a relatively small payload size to orbit.

When the Soviet Union imploded in the early nineties, the cost of Buran became untenable. Russia has only used pure expendables for space launch since.

The 1990s saw interest in developing new reusable vehicles. The military Strategic Defense Initiative ("Star Wars") program "Brilliant Pebbles" required low cost, rapid turnaround space launch. From this requirement came the McDonnell DouglasDelta Clipper VTVL SSTO proposal. The DC-X prototype for Delta Clipper demonstrated rapid turnaround time and that automatic computer control of such a vehicle was possible. It also demonstrated it was possible to make a reusable space launch vehicle which did not require a large standing army to maintain like the Shuttle.

In mid-1990, further British research and major reengineering to avoid deficiencies of the HOTOL design led to the far more promising Skylon design, with much greater payload.

From the commercial side, large satellite constellations such asIridium satellite constellation were proposed which also had low cost space access demands. This fueled a private launch industry, including partially reusable vehicle players, such as Kistler, and reusable vehicle players such as Rotary Rocket.

The end of that decade saw the implosion of the satellite constellation market with the bankruptcy of Iridium. In turn the nascent private launch industry collapsed. The fall of the Soviet Union eventually had political ripples which led to a scaling down of ballistic missile defense, including the demise of the "Brilliant Pebbles" program. The military decided to replace their aging expendable launcher workhorses, evolved from ballistic missile technology, with the EELV program. NASA proposed riskier reusable concepts to replace Shuttle, to be demonstrated under the X-33 and X-34 programs.

The 21st century saw rising costs and teething problems lead to the cancellation of both X-33 and X-34. Then the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster and another grounding of the fleet. The Shuttle design was now over 20 years old and in need of replacement. Meanwhile the military EELV program churned out a new generation of better expendables. The commercial satellite market is depressed due to a glut of cheap expendable rockets and there is a dearth of satellite payloads.

Against this dire backdrop came the Ansari X Prize contest, inspired by the aviation contests made in the early 20th century. Many private companies competed for the Ansari X Prize, the winner being Scaled Composites with their reusable HTHLSpaceShipOne. It won the ten million dollars, by reaching 100 kilometers in altitude twice in a two-week period with the equivalent of three people on board, with no more than ten percent of the non-fuel weight of the spacecraft replaced between flights. While SpaceShipOne is suborbital like the X-15, some hope the private sector can eventually develop reusable orbital vehicles given enough incentive. SpaceX is a recent player in the private launch market which has partially reusable vehicles







Here is a Space Shuttle launch compilation and its ace.





Check the picture below,
Looks familiar doesnt it ? Actually its the Russian contender. I wonder who influenced who in their designs for this? given what we already learned about the N1. Aaaaand we had been spying on each other for years.


The Buran Buran programme.




Being transported by Antonov

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lxLQ6rSpQFQ

For comparison Shuttle on board a 747

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HYEZ_fquY44



On the launch pad 1988





And this is what hapenned





The USSR efforts, 80 minutes of epic footage and interviews.



The secret Soviet Space program there a couple of quite graphic scenes in this one, not too alarming but might disturb young kids.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wYyETnopXpY


Shenlong Chinesespace shuttle





IXV ESA,s contender

It launched today, heres a video of it launching, it splashed down in thre Pacific Ocean. Next landing is scheduled to be on solid ground.

They used 3 descent parachutes the first of which deployed when the craft was still supersonic.

VV04


http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-31114629


http://us.tomonews.net/is-this-the-...-reusable-unmanned-spacecraft-191473972527104
 
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#10
And on the other side of the spectrum, I am working on this kind of a satellite :)

 

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#11
And on the other side of the spectrum, I am working on this kind of a satellite :)


I thought only Taiwanese 6 year olds could build electronic equipment that fast. ! :D

@krusha03 is it the design or assembly you are involved in ?
 
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#12
I thought only Taiwanese 6 year olds could build electronic equipment that fast. ! :D

@krusha03 is it the design or assembly you are involved in ?
worked on the operation and validation of the propulsion system on the satellite in that video and designed, built and tested the engineering model of the propulsion system for the next satellite mission due in 1 year
 

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#14
Quote "Anybody out there have any technical or other experience of rocket propulsion ?"

use to own and ride a BSA A65 rocket

Not quite what you had in mind But it was fun

I'll try and find a pic of my hardtailed BSA and put it on the nostalgic hardware thread. !!!
 

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#15
worked on the operation and validation of the propulsion system on the satellite in that video and designed, built and tested the engineering model of the propulsion system for the next satellite mission due in 1 year
So that is for the tiny stabilization motors ?
what kind of propellant?
Who launches them ?
can you put an interesting link up so i can feed my hungry head please.
 

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#17
History of Manned Space Stations


A space station is a manned satellite designed to remain in low Earth orbit for a long period of time. In general, space stations have the ability for other spacecraft to dock to them. As of 2012, the International Space Station and Tiangong 1 are the only operational space stations currently in orbit. Previous stations include the Salyut and Almaz series, Skylab, and, most recently, Mir.[1]

Space stations are used to study the effects of long-term space flight on the human body. They also serve as a platform for extended scientific studies.[2] All space stations have been designed with the intention of rotating multiple crews, with each crew member staying aboard the station for weeks or months, but rarely more than a year. As of 2012, Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov, and Valeriy Polyakovhave completed single missions of over a year, all aboard Mir.[3]

Space stations have been used for both military and civilian purposes. The first military-use space station was Salyut 2, which was launched by the Soviet Almaz program in 1973.[4] The Soviet Union also claimed the first civilian space station with the launch of Salyut 1. As of 2012, Russia, China, and private companies are building space stations.

MIR 5511 days in orbit crew of 3


Salyut 1 175 days in orbit crew of 3


Salyut 2 13 days in orbit 0 crew


Salyut 3 213 days in orbit crew of 2

The Salyut 3, although called a "civilian" station, was equipped with a "self-defence" gun

Salyut 4 770 days in orbit crew of 2




Salyut 5 412 days in orbit crew of 2

Salyut 5 carried Agat, a camera which the crews used to observe the Earth. The GermanKristall furnace was used for crystal growth experiments aboard the station

Salyut 6 1764 days in orbit crew of 3
Salyut 6 with docked Soyuz and Progress spacecraft

Salyut 7 3216 days in orbit crew of 3




Skylab 2249 days in orbit crew of 3


pic taken by the last crew to leave. There were plans to upgrade but the Shuttle delays prevented it.

ISS



.................................................................................................................................................



US Manned Orbiting Laboratory 1967 cancelled






Almaz station integrated into Salyut program








Polyus battlestation. 1987 failed to reach orbit (Orbital Weapons Platform)




The Mir




pic taken by departing Shuttle Endeavour 1998

The evolution of MIR

1986

1987

1989


1990

1995


1995
Space Shuttle (STS 74) delivered the docking module





1996



Space Crash
Damaged solar arrays on Mir'sSpektr module following a collision withProgress-M34 in September 1997


MIR in orbit

23 march 2001 MIR breaks up on reentry




ISS








1.
It took an astounding 136 space flights on seven different types of launch vehicles to build it.

2. It flies at 4.791 miles per second (7.71 km/s). That's fast enough to go to the Moon and back in about a day.

3. It weighs almost 1 million pounds including visiting spacecraft. Picture 120,000 gallons of milk in supermarket cartons in your mind.

4. It has 8 miles of wire just to connect the electrical power system. That will be enough to connect a hairdryer in Newark, New Jersey, to a power plug in New York City.

5. It has a complete surface area the size of a US football field, which actually makes it almost as large as the Tantive IV, the Corellian Corvette that carried Princess Leia.



6. It has more livable space than a 6-bedroom house.

7. It has two bathrooms, a gymnasium and a 360-degree bay window.

8. It's been the spaceport for 89 Russian Soyuz spacecraft, 37 Space Shuttle missions, three SpaceX Dragons, four Japanese HTV cargo spacecraft, and four European ATV cargo spacecraft.

9. All its research experiments and spacecraft systems are housed in a bit more than one hundred telephone-booth sized racks.



10. The US solar array surface area on the is 38,400 sq. feet (.88 acre), which is large enough to cover 8 basketball courts

11. According to NASA, "there are 52 computers controlling the ISS." Just for the US segment, there are "1.5 million lines of flight software code run on 44 computers communicating via 100 data networks transferring 400,000 signals."

12. Its internal pressurized volume is 32,333 cubic feet, which is about the same of a Jumbo Boeing 747.

13. The ISS crews have eaten about 25,000 meals since 2000. That's a staggering "seven tons of supplies per three astronauts for six months."That's 32,558 Big Macs.

14. 211 people from 15 countries have visited the ISS so far.

15. When it reaches the end of its life, some of the most modern Russian modules—like Nauka—will be reused to make a third space station to support interplanetary mission to Mars, the Moon and Saturn, serving as a launching and return point.



Tiangong 1 2011







Tiangong 2 est 2016




Tiangong 3 est 2022
might look like this


http://img.techpowerup.org/150217/612b2a18abbc150d1fd16feaa4813ae0_large.jpeg
 
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#18
So that is for the tiny stabilization motors ?
what kind of propellant?
Who launches them ?
can you put an interesting link up so i can feed my hungry head please.
Nah the propulsion system onboard that satellite (called Delfi-n3xt) was a technology demonstrator and in theory it is used for changing the orbit (adding deltaV). It used cool gas generators with solidified nitrogen. attitude control (if that is what you mean by stabilization) is done using small reaction wheels and magneto torquers. This was launched by a Dnepr rocket (video below)


What kind of information or links you want to see? Look for QB50 project which is an upcoming project by the EU where 50+ cubesats are launched from all over the world as secondary payload using Cyclone-4. For technical in-depth information you can look into publications from the 4s symposium and small satellite conference or even university repositories (example http://repository.tudelft.nl/)
 

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#19
Nah the propulsion system onboard that satellite (called Delfi-n3xt) was a technology demonstrator and in theory it is used for changing the orbit (adding deltaV). It used cool gas generators with solidified nitrogen. attitude control (if that is what you mean by stabilization) is done using small reaction wheels and magneto torquers. This was launched by a Dnepr rocket (video below)


What kind of information or links you want to see? Look for QB50 project which is an upcoming project by the EU where 50+ cubesats are launched from all over the world as secondary payload using Cyclone-4. For technical in-depth information you can look into publications from the 4s symposium and small satellite conference or even university repositories (example http://repository.tudelft.nl/)

Wow...what a launch ! :toast:
 
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#20
Wow...what a launch ! :toast:
As most russian rockets its a converted icbm launched from a military site (that's why you dont see the ground and crew from our uni was not allowed on site)
 
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#21
NOAA's DSCOVR satellite atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket lifted off on Wednesday, February 11, 2015


Launch is not really exciting but the science is really interesting:

DSCOVR's destination is Lagrange 1 - a point in the Earth-sun system some 1.5 million km from Earth, where the gravitational forces between the sun and Earth create a relatively stable place for a space vehicle to orbit. A spacecraft can orbit the Lagrange 1 point just as it can orbit a planet. Lagrange 1 lies far beyond Earth's magnetic environment, making it a perfect place to measure the constant stream of particles from the sun [solar wind] as they pass by.
 

CAPSLOCKSTUCK

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#22
Propellants and Trajectory
the path followed by a projectile flying or an object moving under the action of given forces.



A trajectory is the path followed by a projectile.

In ballistics, the easiest way to describe a trajectory is by its x- and z-components, with the z component being affected by local gravity. Ignoring air resistance, a particle that is fired from the origin at time t = 0, where
is the initial velocity and
is the initial angle made with the x-axis, the trajectory of a particle is described by

(1)
(2)

where t is the elapsed time and g is the gravitational acceleration, and its velocity components are
(3)




Rockets don't go straight up



upload_2015-2-12_10-11-5.jpeg



This 30-second exposures make up a composite shot of four different rockets launching for the M-TeX and MIST experiments. The rocket salvo occurred on Jan. 26, 2015, at the Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska.




Sometimes they come straight back down



there are loads of crash compilations on youtube


Do some reading about trajectory and orbit

http://history.nasa.gov/conghand/traject.htm


What is rocket fuel ?
Dont get put off by the intro btw


 
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CAPSLOCKSTUCK

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#23
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#25
Germany

A video about :respect: Werner von Braun thats an enjoyable and interesting hour long.



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics




United States of America




What the Brits were doing. 3 parts on youtube. Proper blokes with spanners, brilliant stuff.


 
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