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WMAP: Final Results

Discussion in 'Science & Technology' started by Drone, Dec 21, 2012.

  1. Drone

    Drone

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    Finally!!!



    In a nutshell: Scientists now know for sure that:

    a) Spontaneous quantum fluctuations created our Universe
    b) There was inflation
    c) The universe comprises only 4.6% atoms
    d) The universe is flat

    Recently, Stephen Hawking commented in New Scientist that WMAP's evidence for inflation was the most exciting development in physics during his career.

    NewScientist

    PhysOrg

    We live in an awesome time :) WMAP is fantastic, nine years of observations are not wasted.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Nov 20, 2013
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  2. m1dg3t

    m1dg3t

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    Bring on the multiverse?
     
  3. Inceptor

    Inceptor

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    To me, the conclusion that the Universe is flat is the most immediately mind blowing; potentially infinite space...
     
  4. McSteel

    McSteel

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    What bugs me is that we'll probably never know which specific geometry it has, since there are 10 kinds of flat 3-manifolds...
     
  5. W1zzard

    W1zzard Administrator Staff Member

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    "flat" can also mean any other surface geometry that has a curvature smaller than the measuring accuracy of the instrument.

    "flat" (= infinite) contradicts "inflation" (= not infinite)
     
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  6. Drone

    Drone

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    Seems so. If there's one universe there can be many others with different laws of physics.

    Yes it's astonishing. They said that the density of the universe exactly equals the critical density, so the geometry of the universe is flat like a sheet of paper (where the interior angles of a triangle add to 180 degrees). I always liked brane cosmology even though it doesn't match these new results from WMAP, the say that the Big Bang was not the beginning of time but the bridge to a past filled with endlessly repeating cycles of evolution.
     
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  7. m1dg3t

    m1dg3t

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    My understanding (which is admittedly limited) was that the main thing holding back the theory of multiverses was the uncertainty of inflation, if it was "real" or not. Since inflation has been confirmed now we can postulate that the "big bang" was not an isolated occurance and may be just a small part of the overall picture. :eek:

    As space "grows" energy fills in the "emptiness", which in turn may lead to the creation of "new" universes via new "big bangs"... If I understand it correctly? Of course this is simplified :eek:

    http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiverse

    http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Guth Is the main guy studying this and there are also two Russian physicists working on the theory as well but they're names escape me at this time :(
     
  8. Drone

    Drone

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    That's correct. Space expands, entropy grows, order becomes disorder, stars fade away, black holes appear and so on. Lee Smolin thinks that every black hole contains a universe (and our universe is inside a black hole). And he implies that it's like a "living organism" and amount of black holes is some kind of "fertility" (more black holes more "baby" galaxies). Sounds crazy but anything is possible.
     
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  9. McSteel

    McSteel

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    I don't see it that way. Inflation simply means non-linearly accelerated expansion, which does not imply non-flat expansion, and certainly does not contradict infinite space. And by geometry I don't mean surface (2D) geometry because we already know it's Euclidean. I meant the spatial (3D) geometry, which, with the Universe appearing infinite, could very well be that of a Möbius Strip, for example...
     
  10. m1dg3t

    m1dg3t

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    S = k. log W :rockout:
     
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  11. Drone

    Drone

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    Another groundbreaking finding. This time it's from CSIRO. They measured how warm the Universe was 7.2 billion years ago.

    Brrr that's cold ...

    [​IMG]
     
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  12. NinkobEi

    NinkobEi

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    Can someone explain to me what this means? Surely it doesn't mean that matter occupies 4.6% of the universe. That seems extraordinarily high considering its size.
     
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  13. Drone

    Drone

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    Well it means exactly that. *sigh* Didn't you watch the video in the OP? Dr. Charles L. Bennett explains that. If you're lazy then skip to ~1:20.
     
  14. NinkobEi

    NinkobEi

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    Oh wow, I didn't even see the video. I'm at work and this browser doesn't pick up anything flash-related at all. So annoying. Thanks I'll check it out later!
     
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  15. Drone

    Drone

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    Most detailed CMB map ever

    [​IMG]

    However, this freshly released CMB map has brought many surprises with it:

    Dafuq is happening :D Universe is even more complex than we thought or maybe not ... Go figure

    But this is awesome anyway. Such a detailed map of CMB. It's fantastic. BTW scientists said that it implies that the age of the Universe is 13.82 billion years.
     
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  16. m1dg3t

    m1dg3t

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    Inflation theory in "detail"...





    Drone, you still around? :peace:
     
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  17. Drone

    Drone

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    ^ Thanks for those. :p Yup I'm more in astrophysics and astronomy than ever before!
     
  18. Drone

    Drone

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    A sexy massive bump:


    New Planck data suggest that reionization may have occurred approximately 550 million years after the Big Bang, i.e., 100 million years later than WMAP had estimated.

    It means that stars may be younger than believed

    New visualizations of the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background as detected by ESA's Planck satellite

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]
     
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  19. Drone

    Drone

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    ESA's Planck space observatory shows the Milky Way in 4 distinct color signals that, when combined into a single mosaic, create a hypnotic view of our home galaxy.

    [​IMG]

    With its microwave vision, Planck can detect more than just the cosmic microwave background [light left over from the Big Bang].

    The red (upper left) shows the heat coming from dust throughout the Milky Way. The dust is extremely cold [-251C].
    The yellow (upper right) shows carbon monoxide gas, which is concentrated in areas where new stars are being born.
    The blue (lower right) shows light created when charged particles get caught up in the Milky Way's magnetic field. The particles accelerate to nearly the speed of light and begin to radiate.
    The green (lower left) shows light that is created by free particles that zip past one another without quite colliding. This kind of light is often associated with hot, ionized gas near massive stars.
     
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  20. Drone

    Drone

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  21. Drone

    Drone

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    Portrayed in this image from ESA's Planck satellite are the two Magellanic Clouds. The Large Magellanic Cloud, about 160000 ly away, is the large red and orange blob close to the center of the image. The Small Magellanic Cloud, some 200000 ly from us, is the vaguely triangular-shaped object to the lower left.
    In addition, a filament can also be seen stretching from the dense clouds of Chameleon, in the upper left, towards the opposite corner of the image.
    This dusty filament is in fact much closer to us, only ~ 300 ly away.

    [​IMG]
     
  22. Drone

    Drone

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    Where's @m1dg3t ?


    Mystery bright spots could be first glimpse of another universe

    Light given off by hydrogen shortly after the big bang has left some unexplained bright patches in space. Are they evidence of bumping into another universe?

    The curtain at the edge of the universe may be rippling, hinting that there's more backstage. Data from the ESA's Planck telescope could be giving us our first glimpse of another universe, with different physics, bumping up against our own.

    Armed with Planck's painstaking map of the CMB – light lingering from the hot, soupy state of the early universe – Ranga-Ram Chary, a researcher at Planck's US data centre in California, revealed an eerie glow that could be due to matter from a neighbouring universe leaking into ours.

    This sort of collision should be possible, according to modern cosmological theories that suggest the universe we see is just one bubble among many. Such a multiverse may be a consequence of cosmic inflation, the widely accepted idea that the early universe expanded exponentially in the slimmest fraction of a second after the big bang.

    Once it starts, inflation never quite stops, so a multitude of universes becomes nearly inevitable. “I would say most versions of inflation in fact lead to eternal inflation, producing a number of pocket universes,” says Alan Guth of the MIT, an architect of the theory.

    Energy hidden in empty space drives inflation, and the amount that's around could vary from place to place, so some regions would eventually settle down and stop expanding at such a manic pace. But the spots where inflation is going gangbusters would spawn inflating universes. And even areas within these new bubbles could balloon into pocket universes themselves.

    Like compositions on the same theme, each universe produced this way would be likely to have its own spin on physics. The matter in some bubbles – the boring ones – would fly apart within 10^-40 seconds of their creation. Others would be full of particles and rules similar to ours, or even exactly like ours. In the multiverse of eternal inflation, everything that can happen has happened – and will probably happen again.

    That notion could explain why the physical constants of our universe seem to be so exquisitely tuned to allow for galaxies, stars, planets and life.

    Sadly, if they do exist, other bubbles are nigh on impossible to learn about. With the space between them and us always expanding, light is too slow to carry any information between different regions.

    However, if two bubbles started out close enough that they touched before expanding space pushed them apart forever, they could leave an imprint on each other.

    In 2007, Matthew Johnson of York University in Toronto, Canada and his PhD adviser proposed that these clashing bubbles might show up as circular bruises on the CMB. They were looking for cosmic dance partners that resembled our own universe, but with more of everything. That would make a collision appear as a bright, hot ring of photons.

    By 2011, they were able to search for them in data from WMAP probe. But they came up empty-handed.

    Now Chary thinks he may have spotted a different signature of a clash with a foreign universe.

    Instead of looking at the CMB itself, Chary subtracted a model of the CMB from Planck's picture of the entire sky. Then he took away everything else, too: the stars, gas and dust.


    With our universe scrubbed away, nothing should be left except noise. But in a certain frequency range, scattered patches on the sky look far brighter than they should. If they check out, these anomalous clumps could be caused by cosmic fist-bumps: our universe colliding with another part of the multiverse.


    These patches look like they come from the era a few hundred thousand years after the big bang when electrons and protons first joined forces to create hydrogen, which emits light in a limited range of colours. We can see signs of that era, called recombination, in the light from that early hydrogen. Studying the light from recombination could be a unique signature of the matter in our universe – and potentially distinguish signs from beyond.

    Since this light is normally drowned out by the glow of the CMB, recombination should have been tough for even Planck to spot. But Chary's analysis revealed spots that were 4500 times as bright as theory predicts.

    One exciting explanation for this is if a surplus of protons and electrons – or something a lot like them – got dumped in at the point of contact with another universe, making the light from recombination a lot brighter. Chary's patches require the universe at the other end of the collision to have roughly 1000 times as many such particles as ours. It will be important to carry out an independent analysis and confirm this finding.

    An experiment that could help might be on its way. Scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center plan to submit PIXIE, the Primordial Inflation Explorer, to be considered for funding at the end of 2016.

    [​IMG]

    Just right for life?

    If our universe is just one of many, that could explain why it seems so exquisitely tuned for our existence.

    If dark energy, the repulsive influence hiding in empty space that speeds up the expansion of the universe, were just a little stronger, matter would be flung apart before galaxies could ever form. If it were attractive instead, the universe would collapse. But it is shockingly puny, and that's weird, unless our universe is one of many in the multiverse.

    Compared with what we might expect from quantum theory, dark energy is 120 orders of magnitude too small. So far, no compelling explanation for that discrepancy has emerged. But if the multiverse exists, and dark energy varies from bubble to bubble, that might not seem so strange.

    That's because our own universe might be an oddball compared to most bubbles. In many, dark energy would be too strong for galaxies, stars and planets to form, but not in all. “Plenty of them would have energies as small as what we observe,” says physicist Alan Guth of MIT.

    That still leaves us struggling to explain why our universe is one of the special ones. Our best answer so far, Guth says, is a philosophical headache: our universe has to be special because we are alive in it. In a more average region, where dark energy is stronger, stars, planets, and life would never have evolved.

    That could mean life only exists in a sliver of the multiverse, with any conscious beings convinced their own slice of space is special, too.



    https://www.newscientist.com/articl...s-could-be-first-glimpse-of-another-universe/
     
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  23. CAPSLOCKSTUCK

    CAPSLOCKSTUCK Spaced Out Lunar Tick

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    So much to know, so little space left in my head..... :banghead:
     
  24. Drone

    Drone

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    Penrose rules!

     

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