The big AMD "Zen 3" architecture we've been hearing a lot about is finally here, and we have with us its most affordable part, the 6-core Ryzen 5 5600X. AMD claims that the 5600X is everything an AAA gamer would possibly want, and that the processor shouldn't get in the way of even premium 4K graphics cards. With the "Zen 3" launch, AMD is keeping its promise of rolling out a new microarchitecture every year since the 2017 debut of the original "Zen." What's astonishing, though, is that AMD has managed to deliver an IPC increase with each microarchitecture launched since. In contrast, Intel has been stuck with the same IPC for the desktop platform for half a decade, and its "Rocket Lake" processor reportedly won't launch until March 2021.
The "Zen 3" microarchitecture heralds a significant 19% IPC increase over "Zen 2," which already had a transformative impact on the desktop processor market. Higher IPC means higher single-threaded performance, which means games, traditionally less parallelized than productivity, tend to benefit more. An IPC increase of the kind being marketed by AMD would mean that "Zen 3" beats Intel at gaming given "Zen 2" wasn't too far behind "Comet Lake" for gaming. At the higher-end, with the Ryzen 9 series, AMD offers more cores to the dollar with 12-core and 16-core parts, but things are evenly matched between the Ryzen 5 5600X and Intel Core i5-10600K, with both being 6-core/12-thread parts.
The biggest under-the-hood change with "Zen 3" is AMD practically doing away with the 4-core CCX by putting all eight cores of its chiplet into a single 8-core CCX. This means all cores within a chiplet can talk to each other at lower latency, and access a larger 32 MB shared L3 cache. The 5600X is carved out by disabling two out of eight cores. AMD's Ryzen 5000 processors still implement a multi-chip module, with this generation's MCM being codenamed "Vermeer."
AMD is debuting the Ryzen 5 5600X at a staggering $299, which is the highest launch price ever for a Ryzen 5-series processor, higher than what you'd pay for an 8-core 3700X. AMD states that the 5600X should have everything you need to build a gaming desktop for any resolution. Unlike the 5800X and 5900X which lack stock cooling solutions, AMD is including a cooler with the Ryzen 5. The chip has the same 95 W TDP as its predecessor, the 3600X, and is built on the same 7 nm silicon fabrication node. In this review, we put the Ryzen 5 5600X through our wide selection of gaming and productivity tests to tell you whether six "Zen 3" cores are worth more than eight "Zen 2" ones.
|Price||Cores / |
|Ryzen 5 1600X||$150||6 / 12||3.6 GHz||4.0 GHz||16 MB||95 W||Zen||14 nm||AM4|
|Ryzen 5 2600X||$170||6 / 12||3.6 GHz||4.2 GHz||16 MB||95 W||Zen||12 nm||AM4|
|Core i5-9400F||$145||6 / 6||2.9 GHz||4.1 GHz||9 MB||65 W||Coffee Lake||14 nm||LGA 1151|
|Core i5-10400F||$170||6 / 12||2.9 GHz||4.3 GHz||12 MB||65 W||Comet Lake||14 nm||LGA 1200|
|Ryzen 7 1700||$170||8 / 16||3.0 GHz||3.7 GHz||16 MB||65 W||Zen||14 nm||AM4|
|Ryzen 7 1700X||$200||8 / 16||3.4 GHz||3.8 GHz||16 MB||95 W||Zen||14 nm||AM4|
|Core i5-10500||$250||6 / 12||3.1 GHz||4.5 GHz||12 MB||65 W||Comet Lake||14 nm||LGA 1200|
|Ryzen 5 3600||$200||6 / 12||3.6 GHz||4.2 GHz||32 MB||65 W||Zen 2||7 nm||AM4|
|Ryzen 7 2700||$330||8 / 16||3.2 GHz||4.1 GHz||16 MB||65 W||Zen||12 nm||AM4|
|Core i5-8400||$205||6 / 6||2.8 GHz||4.0 GHz||9 MB||65 W||Coffee Lake||14 nm||LGA 1151|
|Ryzen 7 2700X||$215||8 / 16||3.7 GHz||4.3 GHz||16 MB||105 W||Zen||12 nm||AM4|
|Core i3-8350K||$200||4 / 4||4.0 GHz||N/A||8 MB||91 W||Coffee Lake||14 nm||LGA 1151|
|Core i5-8600K||$220||6 / 6||3.6 GHz||4.3 GHz||9 MB||95 W||Coffee Lake||14 nm||LGA 1151|
|Core i5-9600K||$200||6 / 6||3.7 GHz||4.6 GHz||9 MB||95 W||Coffee Lake||14 nm||LGA 1151|
|Core i5-10600K||$275||6 / 12||4.1 GHz||4.8 GHz||12 MB||125 W||Comet Lake||14 nm||LGA 1200|
|Ryzen 5 3600X||$240||6 / 12||3.8 GHz||4.4 GHz||32 MB||95 W||Zen 2||7 nm||AM4|
|Ryzen 5 3600XT||$240||6 / 12||3.8 GHz||4.5 GHz||32 MB||95 W||Zen 2||7 nm||AM4|
|Ryzen 5 5600X||$300||6 / 12||3.7 GHz||4.6 GHz||32 MB||65 W||Zen 3||7 nm||AM4|
|Ryzen 7 1800X||$250||8 / 16||3.6 GHz||4.0 GHz||16 MB||95 W||Zen||14 nm||AM4|
|Core i7-8700K||$380||6 / 12||3.7 GHz||4.7 GHz||12 MB||95 W||Coffee Lake||14 nm||LGA 1151|
|Core i7-9700K||$380||8 / 8||3.6 GHz||4.9 GHz||12 MB||95 W||Coffee Lake||14 nm||LGA 1151|
|Core i7-10700K||$380||8 / 16||3.8 GHz||5.1 GHz||16 MB||125 W||Comet Lake||14 nm||LGA 1200|
|Ryzen 7 3700X||$325||8 / 16||3.6 GHz||4.4 GHz||32 MB||65 W||Zen 2||7 nm||AM4|
|Ryzen 7 3800X||$340||8 / 16||3.9 GHz||4.5 GHz||32 MB||105 W||Zen 2||7 nm||AM4|
|Ryzen 7 3800XT||$380||8 / 16||3.9 GHz||4.7 GHz||32 MB||105 W||Zen 2||7 nm||AM4|
|Ryzen 7 5800X||$450||8 / 16||3.8 GHz||4.7 GHz||32 MB||105 W||Zen 3||7 nm||AM4|
Unboxing and Photography
The Ryzen 7 5800X comes in a fairly large paperboard box. The front face of Ryzen 5000 series box features a brushed metal look (compared to the carbon fiber appearance of the Ryzen 3000 series). There are enough pointers to let you know you're buying a Ryzen 5000-series part. A small cutout on the side shows the actual processor inside the package.
Unlike other Zen 3 processors launched today, the Ryzen 5 5600X includes a heatsink in the box. The Wraith Stealth cooling solution is suitable for the 65 W TDP of the Ryzen 5 5600X.
The processor looks like any conventional AMD CPU with a large IHS dominating the top, and a 1,331-pin micro-PGA as the bottom. The "Zen 3" CCD chiplet is made in Taiwan and the I/O die in the US, and the two are put together at a facility in China.
The Zen 3 Microarchitecture
Since its 2017 debut, AMD has delivered a new iteration of its groundbreaking Zen CPU microarchitecture each year, each with IPC improvements. As we mentioned earlier, the new Zen 3 microarchitecture claims to offer a massive 19 percent IPC uplift over its predecessor, Zen 2. This is accomplished by improvements at both micro and macro levels. We already detailed the macro (beyond the core) changes above. In this section, we talk about what's new inside each core. AMD talks about updates to practically all key components of the core, including its front-end, fetch/decode, the integer and floating-point components, load-store, and the dedicated caches.
Modern processors execute multiple instructions in parallel to improve performance. Computer programs consist of huge amounts of "if ... then ... else" instructions, which slow down the processor because it has to evaluate the condition before picking a branch to execute. In order to overcome this limitation, the branch predictor was invented, a piece of circuitry that takes a guess on what's the more likely outcome of the condition check and just speculatively executes that branch's instructions. Of course, there's a chance that the prediction is wrong, in which case a performance penalty is incurred from undoing the executions that were already executed. With "Zen 3", AMD uses an improved TAGE branch predictor, which is more accurate and recovers faster from mispredictions. They also changed the design to be "bubble free," which avoids inserting "wait for result" instructions in the instruction stream whenever a branch is encountered.
AMD generally increased ops/cycle; the front-end now switches between the op and instruction caches faster. The 32 KB L1 instruction cache has been tweaked to offer better utilization due to efficient tagging and pre-fetching. Streamlining was done to the Op cache. Improvements to the branch predictor and front-end add up to nearly a quarter of the overall 19% generational IPC uplift.
The execution engine, or combination of the integer and floating-point execution units, is the main math muscle of the CPU core. The "Zen 3" microarchitecture features improvements to both over "Zen 2." Both the INT and FP issue queues (which feed work to the two engines) have been widened and the execution window enlarged. This ensures fewer units are idle in typical programs, which increases overall performance.
AMD worked to minimize latencies at every stage of the INT execution engine, and enlarged its key structures, including the integer scheduler (96 entry vs. 92 on "Zen 2"), physical register file (192 vs. 180 on "Zen 2"), and 10 issues per cycle, up from 7 on "Zen 2." Data picker bandwidth has been significantly increased despite the same number of ALUs. The floating-point engine features the same 256-bit FPUs, but just as with the INT engine, the FP engine has latency and bandwidth improvements across the board, a faster 4-cycle FMAC, and a larger scheduler. The INT and FP improvements contribute around a fifth of the 19% overall IPC uplift.
With the "Zen 3" microarchitecture, AMD addressed many bottlenecks and "intelligence" issues with the Load/Store unit. The biggest has to be bandwidth. The entry store queue has been widened to 64 from 48 on "Zen 2," and the L2 cache DTLB is 2K entries wide. The 32 KB L1 data cache has been made faster, with lower latencies. Memory dependence detection has been improved. Much like the front-end and scheduler, the load/store improvements contribute nearly a quarter of the 19% overall IPC uplift, meaning that by just optimizing the non-execution components of its core, AMD managed to pull off a vast 9% overall IPC uplift.
ISA and Security Changes
Each new microarchitecture heralds support for newer instruction sets and security hardening, and the same is the case with "Zen 3"; however, a notable absentee is AVX-512. Granted, Intel has adopted a less than perfect method of proliferating AVX-512 with certain instructions being exclusive to enterprise-segment microarchitectures and only a handful client-relevant instructions on its "Ice Lake" and "Tiger Lake" architectures, but there's no movement from AMD in this direction.
You still do get 256-bit instructions from within the AVX2 set. Also missing in action is something to rival Intel's DLBoost, which is essentially a software exposure of fixed-function hardware that accelerates matrix multiplication, in effect AI deep-learning neural net building and training. A lot of client applications, particularly image manipulation and video editing, are leveraging edge AI, and some investment from AMD on this would have been nice. That said, "Zen 3" adds two new ISA instructions, MPK (memory protection keys) and AVX2 support for AES/APCLMulQD. AMD has been ahead of Intel with CPU core security vulnerability perception, and with "Zen 3," AMD is introducing CET, or control-flow enforcement, which should provide hardening against ROP-type attacks.
Vermeer Multi-Chip Module
The AMD Ryzen 9 5600X "Zen 3" processor is built on a Socket AM4 multi-chip module package the company refers to as "Vermeer." Since the Ryzen 3000 "Matisse," which was the first desktop processor to implement the 7 nm silicon fabrication process, AMD figured out a way to optimize the utilization of its 7 nm foundry allocation by using two things—building only those components that tangibly benefit from the new node on 7 nm, namely the CPU cores, and moving all other components to a separate die built on older 12 nm process, the cIOD (client IO die). The CPU cores are built on tiny dies with eight cores each, which AMD refers to as the CCD (CPU core die), and on the older "Zen 2" microarchitecture, the eight cores were split into two groups of four cores, each, called CPU core complexes (CCX). Each of the two CCX on the "Zen 2" CCD had its own 16-megabyte L3 cache shared between the two cores, and communication between cores of different CCX required a round-trip to the cIOD.
With the new "Zen 3" microarchitecture, the biggest high-level change with the CCD is AMD's enlargement of the CCX to now include up to eight cores (essentially taking up the whole CCD). There's now one 8-core CCX per CCD. The biggest dividend of this change has to be improved inter-core latency since the eight cores now share the same L3 cache; the other big dividend has to be cache size. Each core on the CCD now has access to the full 32 MB L3 as a victim cache, so lightly threaded workloads should see a performance uplift. Eight-core Ryzen 7 5000-series models, such as the 5800X, feature a single CCD with all cores enabled. 6-core parts, such as the Ryzen 5 5600X, feature one CCD with any two of the cores disabled (shouldn't matter which ones). The 12-core Ryzen 9 5900X and 16-core Ryzen 9 5950X are parts that have two 8-core CCDs besides the cIOD. The 5900X is carved out by disabling any two cores per CCD, while the 5950X has all cores enabled on both CCDs. We confirmed with AMD that Ryzen 5000 "Vermeer" uses the same exact 12 nm cIOD as the Ryzen 3000 "Matisse" with only a couple of non-physical improvements, such as improved memory clocks and clock domains.
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