Test SetupAll measurements were performed using two Chroma 6314A mainframes equipped with the following electronic loads: six 63123A [350 W each], one 63102A [100 W x2], and one 63101A [200 W]. The aforementioned equipment is able to deliver 2500 W of load, and all loads are controlled by a custom-made software. We also used a Picoscope 3424 oscilloscope, a Picotech TC-08 thermocouple data logger, a Fluke 175 multimeter, and a Yokogawa WT210 power meter. We also included a wooden box, which, along with some heating elements, was used as a hot box. Finally, we had at our disposal four more oscilloscopes (Rigol 1052E and VS5042, Stingray DS1M12, and a second Picoscope 3424), and a CEM DT-8852 sound level meter. In this article, you will find more details about our equipment and the review methodology we follow. Finally, we conduct all of our tests at 40-45°C ambient in order to simulate with higher accuracy the environment seen inside a typical system, with 40-45°C being derived from a standard ambient assumption of 23°C and 17-22°C being added for the typical temperature rise within a system.
Primary Rails Voltage RegulationThe following charts show the voltage values of the main rails, recorded over a range from 60W to the maximum specified load, and the deviation (in percent) for the same load range.
5VSB RegulationThe following chart shows how the 5VSB rail deals with the load we throw at it.
Hold-up TimeThe hold-up time is a very important characteristic of a PSU and represents the amount of time, usually measured in milliseconds, that a PSU can maintain output regulations as defined by the ATX spec without input power. In other words, it is the amount of time that the system can continue to run without shutting down or rebooting during a power interruption. The ATX spec sets the minimum hold-up time with the maximum continuous output load to 16 ms. In the following screenshot, the blue line is the mains signal and the yellow line is the "Power Good" signal. The latter is de-asserted to a low state when any of the +12V, 5V, or 3.3V output voltages fall below the undervoltage threshold, or after the mains power has been removed for a sufficiently long time to guarantee that the PSU cannot operate anymore.
The hold-up time reaches the minimum allowed time that the ATX spec requires. This is something not to take lightly, since many PSUs, including enough high-end ones, failed this test. It also becomes more difficult to attain a large hold-up time as a unit's capacity increases because larger APFC capacitors are required. Using larger APFC capacitors is also, besides their cost, which is significant, especially if they are of high-quality, a space issue.
Inrush CurrentInrush current or switch-on surge refers to the maximum, instantaneous input-current drawn by an electrical device when first turned on. Because of the charging current of the APFC capacitor(s), PSUs produce large inrush-current right as they are turned on. Large inrush current can cause the tripping of circuit breakers and fuses and may also damage switches, relays and bridge rectifiers; as a result, the lower the inrush current of a PSU right as they are turned on, the better.
The inrush current is over 40 A, which is to be expected because large hold-up caps are used, but it is, at the same time, also lower than the inrush current that other high-end 1 kW units registered.
Voltage Regulation and Efficiency MeasurementsThe first set of tests revealed the stability of the voltage rails and the efficiency of the V1000. The applied load was equal to (approximately) 20%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 80%, 100%, and 110% of the maximum load that the PSU can handle. We conducted two additional tests. In the first test, we stressed the two minor rails (5V and 3.3V) with a high load while the load at +12V was only 2 A. In the second test, we dialed the maximum load that the +12V rail could handle while the load on the minor rails was minimal.
| Voltage Regulation & Efficiency Testing Data |
Cooler Master V1000
|Test||12 V||5 V||3.3 V||5VSB||Power|
|Efficiency||Fan Speed||Fan Noise||Temp|
|20% Load||14.705A||1.982A||1.971A||0.985A||199.70W||91.63%||757 RPM||34.3 dBA||38.56°C||0.916|
|40% Load||29.813A||3.975A||3.949A||1.185A||399.53W||92.66%||775 RPM||34.4 dBA||39.69°C||0.959|
|50% Load||37.266A||4.970A||4.941A||1.586A||499.50W||92.67%||790 RPM||34.5 dBA||41.36°C||0.969|
|60% Load||44.739A||5.970A||5.933A||1.989A||599.46W||92.38%||1378 RPM||41.0 dBA||42.94°C||0.974|
|80% Load||59.896A||7.972A||7.922A||2.404A||799.26W||91.64%||2004 RPM||49.9 dBA||44.19°C||0.980|
|100% Load||75.734A||8.984A||8.924A||3.025A||999.00W||90.49%||2135 RPM||53.2 dBA||46.11°C||0.981|
|110% Load||84.127A||8.988A||8.933A||3.030A||1098.85W||89.93%||2135 RPM||53.2 dBA||46.15°C||0.982|
|Crossload 1||1.964A||15.006A||15.005A||0.502A||151.78W||85.89%||790 RPM||34.5 dBA||42.90°C||0.900|
|Crossload 2||82.952A||1.000A||1.002A||1.001A||1009.29W||90.92%||2135 RPM||53.2 dBA||43.92°C||0.982|
Up to the 60% load test, the unit kept its fan at low speed, outputting low noise despite the high ambient temperature in which we conducted our tests. The fan dramatically increased its speed with an 80% and up to 110% load to protect the unit from overheating.
Overall voltage regulation is superb, with all major rails registering a deviation below 1% and 5VSB staying within 3%. Also, efficiency throughout the entire load range was very high; it was, as you can see, constantly well above 90% with our normal load tests (test#1-6). As expected, Seasonic's new KM3 platform performed excellently, allowing the V1000 to easily meet the tough competition in this category.